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Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s

Rajgad Institute of Management Research &

Development, Pune -43 Approved by AICTE, Recognized by DTE (Govt. of Maharashtra), Affiliated to Savitribai Phule

Pune University

Research papers published by students in year 2019

Sr. No.

Title of the paper Name of the author/s Name of journal

Year of publication

ISBN/ISSN

1 A study of relationship between brand equity and industrial buying behavior

Rohan P. Dahivale & Niranjan Kulkarni

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

2 Impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance of the company - a review of L&T ltd. Ahmadnagar

Sachin Suresh Bidve & Madhuri Kakade

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

3 Role of GST in Indian economy

Abhay Anant Pathak & Ujawala Lokare

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

4 Expatriate management: a study of cross culture adjustment and motivators with reference to MNC's under study

Manjiri Kalyankar & Shweta Sawale

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

5 A study on stress management with special reference to manufacturing sector

Priyanka Ranshing & Aishwarya Gaikwad

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

6 A study of influence of social media on brand image

Rohan P. Dahivale & Abhishek Ajay Bhonjal

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

7 Modification of worm assembly layout using lean manufacturing principles

Rohan Dahivale & Aniket More

Ajanta 2019 2277-5730

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Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s

Rajgad Institute of Management Research &

Development, Pune -43 Approved by AICTE, Recognized by DTE (Govt. of Maharashtra), Affiliated to Savitribai Phule

Pune University

Research papers published in by students in year 2017

Sr. No.

Title of the paper Name of the author/s Name of journal

Year of publication

ISBN/ISSN

1 A comparative study of aggregate production planning with lowest, expected and average demands

Rohan Dahivale, Dr. Vikas Inamdar, Suryabhan Patil

Incubation II

2017 978-93-2457-20-4

Research papers published by students in year 2016

Sr. No.

Title of the paper Name of the author/s Name of journal

Year of publication

ISBN/ISSN

1 A study of work-life balance among married women employees: with reference to Pune City

Komal Gavhave & Dr. D. B. Bharati

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

2016 978-93-5158-591-6

2 A study on consumer's awareness on green banking initiatives in selected public & private sector banks with special reference to Pune city

Rohini Gujar & Roshna Jaid

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

2016 78-93-5158-591-6

3 A study of demand forecasting & capacity planning

Rohan P. Dahivale, Vaibhav Jadhav & Dr. Vikas Inamdar

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

2016 978-93-5158-591-6

4 Implementation of RIFD based patient monitoring system using cloud computing

Rohan Dahivale & Shantanu Panhale

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

978-93-5158-591-6

5 Location based services using smart city development

Amit Dattatraya Pasalkar, Rohan Dahivale & Dr. E. B. Khedkar

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

2016 978-93-5158-591-6

6 Perm & cpm: implementation in production process

Rohan Dahivale & Sourabh Dharne

Kashvi-2016 (National Conference)

2016 978-93-5158-591-6

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Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s

Rajgad Institute of Management Research &

Development, Pune -43 Approved by AICTE, Recognized by DTE (Govt. of Maharashtra), Affiliated to Savitribai Phule

Pune University

7 An awareness and influence of 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' campaign on public intentions towards cleanliness in public places: A study with reference to Pune City

Rohan Dahivale, Dr. D. B. Bharati, Sagar Jarande

Research Revolution

2016 2319-300x

Research Paper Published by Students in Year 2014

Sr. No.

Title of the paper Name of the author/s Name of journal

Year of publication

ISBN/ISSN number

1 Inventory management with respect to spare parts availability assurance across 54 channels and mother warehouse: a case study

Rohan Dahivale & Sagar Bhosale

Dawn: On to a New Management Yug

2014 2348-0092

2 Supply chain improvement through shift in vendor location: an analytical study in an automobile industry

Rohan P. Dahivale & Praveen Chavan

Chronicle of the Neville Wadia

2014 2230-9667

3 A study of ‘consumer and

telecom service provider’s

interface’ in Pune city

Tushar Funde & Rohan P. Dahivale

Paridnya The MIBM Research Journal

2014 2547-0281 (Online ISSN) &

2347-2405 (Print ISSN)

4 Employee retention through employee engagement: study special reference with retail shop in Pune

Roshna Jaid & Snehal Kumbhare

Paridnya The MIBM Research Journal

2014 2547-0281 (Online ISSN) &

2347-2405 (Print ISSN)

5 Inventory control by KANBAN based pull system implementation

Virendra Konde & Mr. Rohan P. Dahivale

Paridnya The MIBM Research Journal

2014 2547-0281 (Online ISSN) &

2347-2405 (Print ISSN)

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\

A Case StudySagar BhosaleRajgad Inst. Of ManagementReseareh& Devpt.

sagarbhosalel 23 @vahoo.co.in

(

Abstract

Inventory management of spare parts is a

comprehensive study done in a vehicle

manufacturing company for a period of three

months. The main objective behind this

research is to understand the patterns ofcustomer requirements and to ensure the parts

availability in market, which ultimately results

in good vehicle sales. Besides, an attempt was

made to improve parts availability across the

channel. Main constraints in achieving this are

accurate forecasting, dealer investments, time

availability and inventory requirement planning.

The company had done a survey by employing

an external agency, which selected 1046

customers out of 2000. The questions were

linked to sales performance. The agency found

that parts availability is a major threat to the

sale of the vehicles. Customers were unhappy

about parts availability leading to poor brand

image and losing market share. Hence the study

of parts inventory management.

In this research, secondary data has been

collected from ERP reports. Critical part list has

been generated using De$hi method and then

FSN, VED, and HML analysis has been canied

out followed by application of Plan-Do-Check-

Act method. To handle dealer reservations

about investrnent in parts, researchers found out

those dealers were ready to invest up to Rs 2

lakhs only. Based on this feedback the

researchers made two types of kits. One called

Dealer's kit and the other kit consisting of'Company Stock at Dealer end'. Once the kits

were frnalized, managers started pushing

dealers and customer care managers to place

timely purchase orders to ensure that parts are

made available at dealer's end within one

month of placing orders. This has resulted inimprovement in the fulfillment of dealer's

order, enhanced customer satisfaction and

increase in sales. .

Keywords: Inventory Management, PDCA,

FSN analysis, VED analysis, HML analysis

Introduction

Parts management is an important aspect ofInventory management. Non availability ofparts at the dealer level or even in the company

warehouses can have serious repercussions on

sales, market share, profits and image of the

company. Their timely availability must be

ensured but without unnecessary blockage ofcapital. As far as possible scientific inventory

control methods must be employed to control

parts as it otherwise diffrcult to predict whichpart, in what quantity and at what location willbe in short supply.

In the current case dealers were hesitant to keep

additional parts in their inventory as they were

already saddled with a lot of non-moving

inventory and did not wish to block their capital

any further. On the other hand there was

negative feedback from end users, compelling

(

Inventory Management With Respect To SpareParts Availability Assurance Across 54 Channelsand Mother Warehouse:Rohan DahivaleShuradchandra Pawar Inst.Of Managementrohandahivale@ rediffmail.com

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action and steps that would help assure timely

availability of parts.

Secondary Data: (External Agency Survey

done in March 2013) Negative feedback was

given by customers on 'parts availability': 30Yo

out of 743 customers who have used machine

for more than 300 days.

Negative feedback was given by customers on

'parts availability': 18% out of 303 customers

who have used machine up to 90 days.

(Table 1: Improvement Areas in Service for

Overall Customers)

Concepts

Selective inventory control is an essential part

of inventory management which emphasizes on

variations in methods of control of inventory.

Important selective inventory control methods

are:

FSN (Fast moving, Slow moving and Non-

moving) Analysis

This classification relates to consumption

pattem of parts. Items are classified into FSN

on the basis ofthe date ofreceiving v/s date of

issuing materials in the store.

VED (Vital, Essential and Desirable) Analysis

The VED analysis is done to determine the

criticality of parts and their effect on production

and other services. It is specially used for

classification ofspare parts. Ifa part is vital it is

given 'V' classification, if it is essential, then it

is given 'E' classification. If part is not so

essential and alternate part can be used, the part

is given'D' classification. For'V'parts, a large

stock of inventory is generally maintained,

while for'D'parts, minimum stock is enough.

HML(Hieh, Medium and Low) AnalYsis

HML analysis includes classification based on

the per unit value of the parts. The management

decides the cut off prices for the three

Waranty/ClaimRelated

I aJ

Total 100 100

lssues Feedback

fromCustomers:

More than

300 days (%)

Feedback

fromCustomers:

Up to 90

days (%)

UnavailabilityOf Spare Parts

30 l8

Service QualityAnd TAT

t9 t7

Product Quality t7 t5

Service Center

Location

Proximate

10 9

Technically

QualifiedPersonnel

6 8

Remote Care

Related

5 7

Weight Of Parts 5 7

Cost Of Spares J )

High Cost 2 4

Issue WithHydraulics

I 4

Space Related I J

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categories of parts. This analysis helps

determine storage and security requirements.

All High value parts are accorded greater

security and tighter controls in purchases,

storage and issues.

Objectives of the study

o To ensure the availability of right spare

parts, at right time, at right locations

across the channel.

o To ensure the availability of right spare

parts, of right quantity at warehouses.

o To increase the sale of spare parts.

Data analysis and interpretation

PLAII

(Figure 1: PLAN ActivitY)

Critical and top fast mover parts are inconsideration. Top Movers are further dividied

into 2 segments. Parts under warranty and

commercial top 100 parts and all critical parts

are kept at dealer's end. Parts costing below Rs.

5000 are kept in kritial Dealer Kit and above

Rs. 5000 are kept in Company kit.

DOI) Action for Initial Dealer Kit (IDK) at dealer

and Customer Care (CC) end

1. A circular was sent to dealers informing themabout IDK parts.2. Dealer was asked to undertake Physical

verifications and order for parts in shortage

3. Dealer to send the ngn-moving parts back tostore.III) Actions for IDK at Warehouse and

procurement end

1. Max stock level enhanced for these parts and

their availability ensured at Head Office2. Store team instructed to dispatch these parts

on same day of requisition3. Store team to ensure immediate payment forparts refurned

CHECK

I) Check for IDK at dealer and CC end:

1. Customer Care Managers (CCM) to prepare

list of non-available parts by 23'd day of every

month and place an order for'the same

2. Managers have selected zone wise Auditors

who will conduct Audit on every 25th day of the

month.

3. From Head Office, researchers have provided

simple format and procedure for Audit.

II) Check at dealer and CC end:

1. Monthly physical stock verification.

III) Check for IDK at Warehouse and

procurement end:

l. Fortnightly Purchase Order report for IDKparts.

2. Store team to publish the report on FFR for

every month.

ACTAuditor and HO to make a list of remedies

which will ensure that the order has been placed

for'stock out' parts.

Planning team to update the stock norms based

on the requirements and to keep sufficient stock

at warehouse.

8€1ffi50S 15

f€ep in lnitial

Sealer I0t

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Plan (Planning and Analysis for Selection of

'Critical' Spare Parts)

FSN Analysis

Based on last one year's data, researchers have

classified parts as follows:

VED Analysis Done By Using Delphi Method

VED analysis was carried out on a total2059parts.

Vital - This list was prepared based on inputs

from Customer Care Manager and technical

desk and consist of items which if not available

will lead to breakdown of machine and

consequent losses.

Essential - These part lists are taken from ERP

system. These parts are listed under warranty

parts. The non-availability of these parts do not

cause breakdown, but customer may ask forimmediate replacement as machine is under

warranty.

Desirable - All the remaining parts are taken as

desirable..

Table 3: VED Analysis for Total 2059 Parts

Final Selection of Critical Parts

After FSN and VED analysis was carried out on

2059 parts, a frnal list of crucial parts was

prepared consisting of 'fast moving' 'vitalparts' and few parts that are 'fast moving as

well as vital parts'.

Researchers have selected total 418 such parts.

The availability of these parts if assured would

lead to elimination of a majority of customer

complaints:.

Two Main Kits Generated From 418 LineParts

After this researchers created 2 Kits, which

would manage overall parts availability in the

field. Researchers had considered dealer's

conshaints and other practical problems at their

end and therefore included in their kit low value

parts.

FSNCategory

Movement OfPartsConsidered

Number ofParts

(Total2059)Fastmoving commercial parts

and 7 times forwarrantv oarts

219

Slowmoving

0 to 42 times forcommercial partsand0toTtimesfor wa:rantv parts

968

Nonmovins

Not moved sincelast I vear

872

Table2: FSN Analysis for Total 2059 Parts

FAST MOVING PARTS 149

VITAL PARTS 200

FAST MOVING and VITAL

PARTS

69

TOTAL 418

Table 4: Final Selection of Critical Parts

VEDCatesorv

Number of Parts(Total 2059)

VITAL 269

ESSENTIAL 150

DESIRABLE r640

Categorized Line Parts

Distribution

No of line

parts

Dealer Kit t27

Company Kit At Dealer End 213

Special Kit 26

Total Number Of Line Parts

Categorized

35

Common Parts t7

Final total 418

Table 5: Categoization of 418 Critical Parts

IIML Analysis Done tr'or the Parts Which

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Need To Be Kept In Dealer Kit

Researchers have suggested following pricelevels for HML categoization: The parts whichcost more than Rs. 30000 to be kept in special

kit. Parts ranging from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 30000 tobe kept as company kit while those costing less

than Rs. 5000 being low valued items to be keptin dealer's stock.

DO: Format for Dealer Kit Ordering Parts

Researchers created a simple format forknowing stock levels and reordering levels at

dealers' end based on Excel. The data wouldhelp them place timely purchase orders. .

Table 6: HML Analysis for Total 418 Parts

HMLCatesorv

Price Cut Off(InRunees)

Total418

High Above Rs. 30000(l1Yo parts from totallist)

Medium Rs. 5000-30000 (50%parts from total list)

5l

Low Less than Rs. 5000(35% parts of totallist)

367

Dealer Code D26

DealerName ABC

Number of machines 0

CCM Name MT.XYZ

Date s/5t20t3

TableT: Format Suggested For Dealer Kit Ordering Parts

Part Code sF0301054 2001EAA00290N

Part Description NUT HEX Ml8X2XI5.8XIO BUCKET BOLTGross Net Dealer's Price 27.35 49.55

For 10 machines Quantity 26 23

Total value (In '000 Rupees) 7tr.ts tt39.66

Quantity that should beavailable at dealer's end

20 50

Available Quantity at dealer'send

00 03

F-Full available,Partial Available,available

P-N-Not N P

Balance / Not availableOuantity

00 00

OrderNumber 523 4t6Order Quantity(1.5.13 to2.6.13'l

2640 1890

Previous Order PendingOuantitv

00 210

Total Quantity 2640 2100

Total value 72209.28 155043.89

lssN - 2348-0092 DAWN Jr.runral lur Corrl.enrporary Researclr in Management | 41

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CHECK: AuditFormatResearchers selected auditors from available man power based on their experience and Head of

Department' s recommendations.

These auditors were requested to audit data on below listed datalcriteria and thus ensure timely

ordering ofparts.

Table 8: Format Suggested For Audit

ACT: Dealer Kit Part Status - Follow Up Taken With Customer Care Manager

Researchers have taken follow up with auditors and dealers to complete the parts ordering. As is

evident the problems were being resolved over time.

(

Table 9: Dealer Kit Part Status

Warehouse Stock SummarY

Researchers ensured that parts arc available at

warehouse and that the inventory department has

kept up to increased stock levels. Availability of

parts in warehouse and timely supply torespective buyers were verified.

Dealer Code cFS0016 CFGOOSI CFSOO33

Dealer's Name ABC P\4. Ltd LMN Pvt. Ltd PQRPw. Ltd

Dealer's Head OfIicelocation

Muzaffarpur Ahmedabad Madurai

Zone East West South

Date Of Audit 28/sl2013 22ts/2013 30t0s12013

Machine population 39 50 t2

How many parts are fullyavailable with dealer?

90 89 86

How many non-available

parts ordered at Head Office?30 7l 52

Value of the ordered parts 0.45Lakhs 2.02Laths 1.86 Lakhs

How many "non-availableparts" are not ordered tilltime? (with reason)

4lOrder placed and

parts Received55

Target datel Remarks Qf Any)

Category Order Placed Order Placed Order Placed

Dealer Kit Status t0/6/13 Tn o/o 22t6/13 lno/o 5/7113 ln o/o

Bank Guarantee Issue 7 12.96 6 11 l1 4 7.41

Not Replied 9 t6.67 7 t2.96 0

Order to be Placed T7 31.48 9 1,6.67 10 18.52

Order Placed 2l 38.89 32 59.26 40 74.07

Total Dealers 54 100 54 100 54 100

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Warehouse

stock

summery

(onDates)

10.6.13 22.6.13 5.7.13 17.7.t3

Total no

of lineparts

418 418 418 418

Available

at

Efficientstock

level

253 268 298 403

Less than

Efficientstock

165 150 t20 15

Feedbackfrom

Customers:

GRAPH: Comparison of Customer Satisfaction

(

Table l0: Warehouse Stock Summarv

REST]LTS

GRAPH: Comparison of Dealer's Order

Fulfillment

Result:

Source: External Agency Survey done in March

2013 andldy 2013

Source: External Agency Survey done in March

2013 andJuly 2013

Feedback

fromCustomers:Merch 2013

Feedback

fromCustom€rs:Julv 2O13

IOeale/s OrderFulfillment

,6 'i.Parameters Feedback

fromCustomers:March2013

Feedback

fromCustomers:July 2013

Result

1

Customer

Satisfaction

52% 93%

Result

2

Dealer's

Order

Fulfillment

74% 95%

Sr.No.

Month Sales Revenues InRupees (Lakhs)

I April2013 73.66

2 May2013 100.09

aJ June 2013 85.8

4 July 2013 t2t.5r

ISSN=3r18:0092 DAWN Journalfor Contemporary Research in Management | 43

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GRAPH IMPROVEMENT in Spare Parts Sale

(Conclusion

l) By dealer's inventory management activity,

researchers have pushed fast moving parts in

dealer inventory due to which almost all

customer orders are served immediately. Post

research survey done in July 2013 indicates a

significant improvement in customer satisfaction

which has increased from 52o/o to 93%.

2) Researchers have controlled fast moving parts

at warehouse end. Inventory department has

enhanced stock levels for these parts at

warehouse and have ensure that there are no

r. 'stock out' conditions. This has resulted into( q5olo dealer's order fulfillment, which earlier was

74%.

3) Due to inventory management and control

activity, company has given action and check

plans to dealers about spare parts stock at their

end, this has in turn improved their business.

There is definite increase in dealer's profit as

they are avoiding non availability of spare parts

at their end. Company has seen drastic

improvement in sales from73.66lakh rupees to

l2l.5l lafth rupees.

Limitations of the studY

Although this is a true case study, on account ofreasons of confidentiality, the name of the

company and the extemal agency cannot be

mentioned.

Due to constraints researchers were not able to

take into account all parts moving in market

A change in the trend of parts requirement willlead to non-moving inventory.

Abbreviations

BO: Back OrderCCM: Customer Care ManagersFFR: First Fill RatioIDK: Initial Dealer KitCC: Customer Care

at http://www.specialinvestor.com/terms/ 1 072.

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"supply Chain Improvement Through shift rn vendor Location: AnAnalytical Study In An Automobile Industry"

Author: Mr. Rohan P. Dahivale (Assistant Professor)Co-Author: Mr. Praveen Chavan (Student)

Address: Rajgad Institute of Management Research Development, Dhankawadi, pune

Abstract:Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the new buaword is today's world" The main objective of this

teseurch is to study the supply chain improvement through Value Analysis technique snd to analyzc itsaffects on entire supply chain system. SCM comprises of material flow, cash flow, information flow rightfrom tier two sappliers to ultimate customer. In this research we hsve tier one supplier & OriginalEquipment Manufacturer (OEM) transuction only which involves msterial & information JIow andworked on shift of supplier locution.

In this research we analyze the existing supply chain trunssction between supplier & OEM withconsidering various factors like inventory trend in namber of days & slso inventory in vilue, type ofmaterial packaging, transportation terms and freight costs From this analysis we want to test the scopeof improvement frorn supply chain point of view if we shift supplier location from existing one.Improving productivity is crucial factor in facing the challenge of competition & this involves drivingdown the cost of all aspects of business sctivities. Since there is muximam scope of cost reduction in thiarea of materials, doing the job of effrcient & effective management of materials is seen as the key tohigher productivity.

The expected result is improvement in the supply chain in terms of qusl@ & quantity of rawmaterial, inventory reduction, packaging improvement without uny further investment.

Kevwords: Supply Chain Management, Inventory Management, Value Analysis

CONCEPTSThe literature of SCM has exploded during last decade; it is a new buzz word for the current business

models. SCM focuses all activities involved in production and delivering a final product or service, from thevarious sub-tiers to end customers, its theoretical framework originated from multi-echelon inventorymodels (Clark and Scarf 1960). The idea of cost-cost tradeoffs was introduced showing that the lowest totalcost might be achieved by pursuing the lowest cost of each logistics process constituent. Hence, the conceptof logistics integration was introduced by Bowersox (1969).

The idea of SCM is to evaluate the process of planning, implementing and contolling the movementsof materials and finished goods all the way into end users.

Copra and Meindl (2001) defines the objective of SCM is to maximize the overall value of each of thechain. This is in accordance with what Siem (2005) has stated, SCM strives to get "the right ttrings to rightplaces at the right times for maximum profits"

OBJECTIYES OFTHE STUDY1. To study and observe the supply chain process of an automobile company.2, To analyze the effect on shift in vendor location.3. To analyze improvements in supply chain management.

ISSN: 223G9667 Ahonic0o ol tAc Ncvl00o Wadia lnstlttato o( Managcncnt Sttdlas I RascarcA 302

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DATA & DATA ANALYS$: Vehicle Manufacturing Company at Chakan produces variety of models.There is in house production of vehicle engine only, iest oi thi child parts are procured from tier onesuppliers. Being an OEM, company procure child parts, components & subassemblies needed forproduction from vendors & sale the finished products i.e. vehicles to customers. Hence the major functionsat company, Chakan are purchasing of child parts & assembly of the same. All purchase related activitiesare looked after by departnent SCM which is considered as backbone ofthe plant as it ensure the rightmaterial, in the right quantities, with the right delivery (time and place), from the right source, and at theright price with the help of smooth supply of material, information & money along the whole chain rightfrom supplier to ultimate customer. There is commodity wise procurement of child parts at companynamely Casting & Forging, Electrical & Proprietary, DAC, Trim and Sheet Metal researchers have doneresearch in electical & proprietary commodity which encompasses parts pertaining to electrical system,ignition system, lighting system and engine assembly parts. Vendor group is having two different plantsone at Nasik and another at Chakan, Pune. Vendor group keep suppllng c:trryover parts of Chakan plantalong with child parts from their old Nasik plant. Also they have established new plant at Chakan forsupplying wiring hamesses to trucls. The below table furnishes details of child parts supplied by vendor.Also below table fumishes information regarding tansportation of material from supplier end to Company

l80lcA0480N ROOF LAMP WIRING HARNESS DVO43B Nasikl801EAor60N HIGH MOUNTED STOP LAMP w/H DVO43B Nasik0098780 EARTH CABLE -VE MDI SC/DC DVO43B Nasikt40lcA075lN BATTERY CABLE POSITIVE DVO43B Nasikl40lcA074lN BATTERY CABLE NEGATTVE DVO43B Nasik7905UAP00161N WIPERMOTORIIARNESS DVO43D Pune7905UAP00061N w/II GPS DVO43D Pune7905EAP00l7lN WIRING IIARNESS DBV vendor DVO43D Pune7905UAP00190N WIRING FOR SPEEDO GROUND DVO43D Pune7905FAU00041N WH AIR PRESSURE TRANSDUCER DVO43D Pune7905UAQ0001lN w/H AIR FILTER CLOG SENSOR DVO43D Pune7905UAP00071N W/H GPS Speaker DVO43D Pune

INCO terms mean (IN-warding Condition) terms:

Mainly there are two types of INCO terms. These are as follows:o Ex works - Company picks consignment from Vendor end through third party logistics.r Free delivery- Vendor delivers consigrunent to Companythrough his own tansport.INCO terms for vendor Nasik are Ex-works where material is delivered to Company through

Transportation Company which is having collaboration with Company logistics. Vendor used to delivermaterial at Transportation Company's warehouse which then subsequently gets delivered to Company.

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INVENTORY DATAInventory is commonly used to describe the goods and materials that any firm holds for certain

purpose. In other word stock is commonly used to describe the capital invested in a business. Generally raw

material inventory is important from purchasing point of view. Inventory management is a science primarily

about speciffingih" shipe and percentage of stocked goods. How much to carry? Is the main question in

inventory management, as one has to keep this inventory value as low as possible to have less investment ofcapital in material at the same time one has to ensure that there will not be any production loss due to non

availability of raw material with right material, at right time & right place. The generic formula for

calculating this inventory value or quantity, below mentioned are considered.

o Average Daily Demand (ADD).r In Transit Lead Time (ITLT) - in days.

o Vendor Response Time (VRT) - in days.

r Internal Lead Time (ILT) - in days.

o Safety Stock (SS) - in days.

So minimum inventory which need to be carried is calculated as:

Minimum Inventory: ADD * (VRT+ITLT+ILT+SS)The same formula is applied for vendor Nasik, the data we found is fumished in below tables.

Inventory in no of days & value in rupees involved when parts are supplied from Nasik plant.

PartNumber

Description SupplierSS(Davs)

ITLT(Davs)

ILT(Davs)

VRT(Davs) Total

l401cAO751N

Battery CablePositive

Vendor-Nasik7 2 I 2 t2

140rcAo741N

Battery CableNesative

Vendor-Nasik7 2 I 2 12

l80lcAO480N

Roof LampWirins Harness

Vendor-Nasik7 2 I L t2

l80lEAOl60N

High MountedStoo Lamo WII Vendor-Nasik

7 2 I 2 l2

0098780Earth Cable -VeMdi Sc/Dc

Vendor-Nasik7 2 I 2 l2

Part No Description Supplier Total ADD LLMovingAveragePrice

MonthlyRequirement

1401CA0751N

Battery CablePositive

Vendor-Nasik t2 250 3000 153.56 460680

1401cAl0741N

Battery CableNesative

Vendor-Nasik t2 250 3000 117.44 3s2320

1801cA0480N

Roof LampWirins Harness

Vendor-Nasik t2 100 1200 43.85 52620

1801EAO160N

High MountedSton Lamo WII

Vendor-Nasik t2 100 t200 28.16 33792

0098780Earth Cable -VeMdi Sc/Dc

Vendor-Nasik t2 100 1200 r8.77 22524

Total(Rs.) 921936

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After analyzing the data researcher have following findingso Child parts supplied by vendor Nasik plant are having more inventories, so the capital blocked in the

same is more.o More freight cost involved during the transport from Nasik to Chakan'

. Packagtng ofchildparts is corrugatedbox leading to quality issue & scrap generation.

o More follow up from buyer in getting the material till it reaches the destination.

o Possibilities of material damage in transit & due to more material handling.o Restricts more fluctuations in body trim in plan.r Supply chain is little bit complicated because of involvement of third party logistics.o No synchronizing at vendor end between production & supply of parts i.e. there is time lag.

In order to overcome above mentioned issues, it was necessary to find out what else would do the job.

After successive discussion wittr other members from commodity, researchers conclude that the only option

that can sort out all above mentioned problems is to start supply of all parts from vendor Chakan plant

instead of vendor Nasik plant.Researchers have diicussed the entire subject with vendor with help of the concern buyer & convinced

them to start supply from their Chakan plant by explaining the consequences of the switch over. They

agreed in the same & acknowledge their consent.

Then there is need to follow Company standard procedure for tiris switch over, this process is known as

EN - Engineering change Notice. Following is the process flow EN.

Tenns involved in EN process are as follows:o DCR- Design Change Request

o PPRF - Proto Parts Request Formo FTR -Fitrnent Trial Runo PTR - Production Trial Run

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PPAP - Production Part Approval Process

PSW - Parts Submission WarrantAfter successful completion of EN process, Vendor Chakan commenced supply of material to Vehicle

Manufacturing Company.Below are the major consequences observed after commencing supply from Chakan plant:

Packaging ImprovementInventory reductionFreight cost reductionLess in transit damages

Vendor code elimination

PACKAGING IMPROVEMENTPackaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution,

storage, sale,-and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production ofpackiges. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport,

wareh-ousing, loglstiis, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves' transports, informs, and

sells.Vendor was supplying child parts through corrugated boxes from their Nasik plant. It is one time

activity ofsupply tnrougn non returnable boxes as once it is used could not be recycled over period oftime.

From vendoi Nasik to Company Chakan supply in returnable packaging is not possible because of the

difficulties in movement of empiy returnable bins from Company to vendor. There are chances of holding

of material dispatches due to non availability of returnable bins at right time & af right location which may

result into vehicle production loss which is not acceptable at all.

Consequences of these non retumable packaging are:

. It may causes quality issue to battery cables & wiring harnesses

o It is resulting into scrap generation at Company. Unnecessarycostincurredincorrugatedboxes.. It becomes undesirable for material movement not only from Nasik to chakan but also drning in plant

material movement.r Indirectly affecting environment due to tree cutting required for manufacturing of boxes

Supply from Chakan plant has reduced the considerable distance between vendor & customer from 250

km to -5-km.

This has got simplified movement of empty bins from Company to vendor w1rich is much

easier task than earliei on". So vendor is supposed to commence supply of battery cables & wiring

hamesses through returnable packaging i.e. Bins. They provided packaging sign off for each child part in

standard format prepared by Company t"u , that packaging sign offwas signed by vendor representative &

by members of different departments viz. SCM, Production, Quality Assurance once it got finalized.

After successive compietion of formalities, procurement of child parts through returnable bins started.

Change in INCO termsDrawbacks of Ex-works are as follows:o This system is little bit complex.. It requires much follow up with transporter & driver by buyer which is hectic & non value adding task'

o Also cost associated in this transaction is more than actually required.

o There are possibilities of optimal utilization of vehicle capacity. Vehicles are not loaded to their full

capacltles.. There is less synchronization between production at vendor end & dispatch of material resulting into

time lag.

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While INCO terms for vendor Chakan plant is free delivery so it is possible to overcome abovementioned drawbacks of Ex-works.Below table fumishes the 'Transport Cost' Company is paying annually

Freisht ratel Tio No of trips / Month Freisht cost / Month Freisht cost / Year3000 l0 30000 3,60,000

Hence, after shifting vendor to Chakan there would be saving of Rs. 360000 per year.

INVENTORY REDUCTIONIn case of vendor Chakan there is different scenario, no of days & inventory value have been reduced

nally:

Part No Description Supplier SS(davs)

ITLT(davs)

ILT(davs)

VRT(Davs) Total

l40lcA0751N

BATTERY CABLEPOSITIVE

Vendor-Pune t.5 0.5 I 2 5

l401cA074IN

BATTERY CABLENEGATIVE

Vendor-Pune 1.5 0.5 I 2 5

1801CA0480N

ROOF LAMP MRINGIIARNESS

Vendor-Pune 1.5 0.5 2 5

l801EAOl60N HMSL w/H Vendor-

Pune 1.5 0.5 2 5

0098780EARTH CABLE -VEMDI SC/DC

Vendor-Pune 1.5 0.5 I 2 5

Part No Description Supplier Total ADDLowerlimit MAP Value

140lcA0751N

BATTERY CABLEPOSITIVE

vendor-Pune 5 250 t2s0 153.56 191950

140lcA0741N

BATTERY CABLENEGATIVE

vendor-Pune 5 250 1250 117.44 146800

l80lcA0480N

ROOF LAMP WIRINGFIARNESS

vendor-Pune 5 100 500 43.85 21925

l801EAOl60N

.HMSL WH vendor-Pune 5 100 500 28.16 14080

0098780EARTH CABLE -VEMDI SC/DC

vendor-Pune 5 100 500 18.77 9385

Total(Rs.) 384140

So due change in supply from Nasik to Chakan there is reduction in days as well as in inventory carrfngvalue as shown in below table:

Supplier Inv in davs Inventory value INR

Vendor Nasik t2 921936

Vendor Chakan 5 384140ftn,Jlss.lJlLlLi@xlLLSqLrLrrr{\\vr]!Lrri,ll:\!i::r:11:

jRg,ttufft lt"$Niitii'.'N rii ltrfr

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lnformation Technology

Inventory in days lnventory value INR

1000000

800000

600000

400000

200000

X Inventoryvalue INR

FINDINGS: Once shifting supply of wiring hamesses from Nasik plant to Chakan plant there is lot ofimprovement in various parameters. Below table furnishes the before & after situations of parameters once

ttom Chakan t

ffi.{l BC"i6"res#S ;"*{l .**t/'F 'ATte-i qu.*sR ry "*trLocation Nasik ChakanDistance 250 km 5kmInventory In Days JInventory Value Rs.921936 Rs.384140Packaging Comrgated RetumableINCO Terrns Ex-works Free delivervTransport Cost Rs.3.6 laclvear Rs.0In Transit Damage More ZeroFollow Up More Less

CONCLUSION The manufacturing indrrst y U,emost challenging period it has experienced in recent history. Howevei this is the time for these firms tohave a close look at their operations. It is a time to initiati performance improvement programs withoutlosing any more time. The case study shows that such initiatives will not only pay backbuiwill help theorganizations build much needed advantage over competition and retain prontaLiiity.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY1. Since this is a special activity, there was some restriction to share information.2. Supply chain process becomes time consuming process and hence sometimes it affects on monthlv

targets also.

3. lefo1e trying any method or technique proper knowledge is required otherwise wastage of raw material& other resources becomes greater cause ofconcern.

REFERENCES1. Andreas Wieland, Carl Marcus Wallenburg (201l): Suppty-Chain-Management in sti)rmischen Zeiten.

Berlin.

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Harlan4 C.M. (1996) Supply Chain Management, Purchasing and Supply Management, Logistics,Vertical Integration, Materials Management and Supply Chain Dynamics. In: Slack, N (ed.) BlackwellEncyclopedic Dictionary of Operations Manageme,nt. UK: Blackwell."Supply chain management (SCM)'. APICS Dictionary. Retrieved 19 June 2013.

Bartsch, Frank. "supply Chain Management (SCIO". BB Handel. Retrieved l9 June 2013.

David Jacoby (2009), Guide to Supply Chain Management: How Getting it Rigbt Boosts Corporate

Performance (The Economist Books), Bloomberg Press; lst edition, ISBN 978-1576603451Andrew Feller, Dan Shunk, & Tom Callarman (2006). BPTrends, March 2006 - Value Chains Vs.Supply ChainsDavid Blanchard (2010), Supply Chain Management Best Practices, 2nd" Edition, John Wiley &

Sons, ISBN 978047053 1884Mentzer, J.T. et al. (2001): Defining Supply Chain Managemen! in:Journal of Business Logistics,

Yol. 22,No. 2, 2001, pp. 115Hines, T. 2004. Supply chain strategies: Customer driven and customer focused. Oxford: Elsevier.MacDuffie and Helper, 1997; Monden,1993; Womack and Jones, 1996; Gunasekaran, 1999

Lamber! Douglas M.Supply Chain Management: Processes, Parhrerships, Performance, 3rd edition,2008.Doug Page,"Dayon Region a Crucial Hub for Supply Chain Management", Dayton DailyNews, 2009-t2-2t."Indirect carbon emissions and why they matter". Carbon Trust. 7 Nov 201 I . Retrieved 28 Jan 2014.Andreas Wieland and Robert B. Handfield (2013): The Socially Responsible Supply Chain: AnImperative for Global Corporations. Supply Chain Management Review, Vol. 17, No. 5.

Macneil,1975; Williamson, 1974; Hewitt, 1994

Stevens, 1989; Ellram and Cooper, 1993; Ellram and Coopero 1990; Houlihan, 1985

Zhang and Dilts, 2004 ;Vickery et a1.,2003; Hemila,, 2002; Christopher, 1998; Joyce et al., 1997;BowersoxandCloss, 1996;Williamson, 1991;Courtright eta1.,l989;Hofstede, 1978

Jump up David Jacoby, 2009, Guide to Supply Chain Management: How Getting it Right Boosts

Corporate Performance (The Economist Books), Bloomberg Press; lst edition, ISBN 978-1576603451.Chapter 10, Organising, naining and developing staff

19. Sam PD Anantadjaya , Astari Walidin , Egah Sari Waskita , and Irma M. Nawangwulan, ConsumerBehavior, Supply Chain Management And Customer Satisfaction: An Investigative Study In Small AndMedium Enterprises ISSN 1978- 774X

f 20. Anantadjaya, Sam PD, Irma M. Nawangwulan, and Prasetya Yogaswara Q007), "Supply Chain\ Management in the Service Industry of Small and Medium Enterprises", working papers, reference no.

R-02-2007, ETC & Foundation, Bandung: Indonesia.21. Anantadjaya, Sam, and Irma M. Nawangwulan (2006), '"The Tricky Business of Process Evaluations",

The Jakarta Post, Management Page, vol.24,no. 31, Wednesday, Septunber 6,2006,p. 19.

22. Ammacn', Benito (2000), '"The Quasi-Judicial Role of Large Retailers: An Efficiency Hypothesis ofTheir Relations with Suppliers", Revue d'Economie Indushielle, no. 92, 2oo and 3' trisemester, p. 277-296. This is an exact copy of the original working papers no. 445 of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra,

Faculty of Economics and Business Sciences, Barcelola, Spain. Available from www.ssrn.com23. Baucell, Manel, Juan A. Carrasco, and Robin Hogarttr (2007\, "Cumulative Dominance and Heuristics

Performance in Multi Attribute Choice", working papers, Urriversity of Navara, Barcelona, Spain.

24. Choprq Sunil and Peter Meindl (2001), Supply Chain Management Strategy, Planning,

and Operation., New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall tnc.25. Istijanto Q006), Riset Sumber Daya Manusia: Cara Praktis Mendekati Dimensi-Dimensi Kerja

Kar}'rawan, Jakarta, Indonesia: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

3.4.5.

6.

7.

8.

9,10.11.

12.

13.

14.

15.t6.17.

18.

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Horne About us Academics Admission Alumni Infrastructure Research Conferences Placements NAAC StudentsCorner

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

$A Studv of 6Consumer and Telecom Service Provider's

Interface' In Pune City"

Tushar Funde, Student, Rajgad Institute of Management Research Development,

Dhankawadi, Pune. E-mail id : tusharfundel [emailprotected]

Rohan P. Dahivale, Assistant Professor, Rajgad Institute of Management Researclt

D ev el op m ent, D h ankaw a di, P un e. E -m ai I i d : r o h an d ahiv al e@r e diffm ail. c o m

ABSTRACT

Telecom industry is a crucial factor to realize the socio-economic objectives in India. The

Indian Telecom industry is passing through a vibrant transitional phase and clearly

undergoing the operation of market forces of demand and supply. The booming telecom

industry has been attracting large amount of investments in India & is an important tool for

socio- economic development for a nation.

The numbers of subscribers are very rapidly increasing and there is need to study the interface

between telecom service providers and customers. To achieve the customer satisfaction there

is need to analyze the customer's perception so as there should not be gap between the

telecom service provider's performance and customer's perception.

The challenges in front of telecom service providers include attracting their subscribers by

providing high quality of services with competitive charges for services. With the increase in

the cost of acquisition of new customers, telecom service providers continually seek new

ways to gain, retain and increase their existing subscriber base.

This study investigates the interface and may provide the telecom manager useful guidelines

to understand their customer behavior. The study uses a survey of Pune city customers.

Keywords : consumer behavior, telecom service provider, brand image, service delivery,

network experience

0BIECTMS OF THE STUDY

l) To investigate the 'consumer and service provider' interface.

2) To study the brand image of service providers according to consumers.

3) To analyze the service delivery experience of consumers.

4) To understand the network experience about the service providers.

(13 l)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-1

RESEARCH PROBLENI/STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The number of telecom service providers and their subscribers are rapidly increasing. There is

cut throat competition among service providers to retain existing customers and gaining new

ones. To achieve customer satisfaction there is need to study behavior of consumers. There is

facility of 'number portability' so now customers can easily change their existing service

provider. The area of study includes network experience, service delivery experience of

consumers also the brand image of the existing service providers.

RESEARCH DESIGN

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETA'TION

Q. 1) Your Mobile Service Provider's Name.

(

I Twe of research Descriotive Research

2 Research Instrument Structured Ouestionnaire

3 Survey period 15 Mav to l5 July 2014

4 Tvoe oforoduct Telecom Service

5 Universe Population of Pune CitY

6 Population All People who using telecom service in Pggegiff

7 Samplins Method Non Probability Convenience Sampling

8 Primary sourcesQuestionnaire, observation, interview and fi eld

survey

9 Secondary sources Book. Journal, Articles, Magazines

10 Measurable scale used Nominal. Ordinal, Interval scale.

ll Ratins Scale Likert Scale 1 to 7 (l: Worst, 7 : Excel&nt)

t2 Total Responders 120

Idea Vodafone Reliance Airtel BSNL Uninor AircelTata

docomoTotal

Responders JJ 2l 4 27 13 9 6 7 r20

Percentage 27.5 t7.5 3.3 22.5 10.8 7.5 5.0 5.8 t00%

(r32)

..-t!t!

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35

*s

*$

[:'$

ft$

{fi

ts

u oH # *e ff(

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, YoI-2,Issue-l

Interpretation :

In our survey we found that Idea, Ariel, Vodafone are top 3 Service Providers in Pune city.

Q. 2) Advertisem*nts & Promotions of my operator provide true, relevant & complete

information.

l,Sr Ssg:S?i*brt&ld&*.

Interpretation :

Advertisem*nt & promotion activities are important in conveying various offers and plans

from operators to consumers. In our survey we found that operators provide necessary

relevant information to consumers.

(

Scale I 2 3 4 J 6 7 Total

Responders 0 0 2 2 20 7l 25 t20

Percentage 0 0 1.6 1.6 16.7 59.2 20.9 t00 %

(133)

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(

September 2014 Paridnva - The MIBM Research Journal, Vol-2, Issue-l

,*sStwr*#@:

Interpretation :

All consumers' choice is special. Customer's choice is individually separate from other

customer for example calling, SMS plans, and data service, night plans etc. Operator

generally provides customized service. In our survey we found that the level of experience to

the consumer is 'near to excellent' and at likert scale 6.

Q.4) I feel valued being associated with my operator.

(

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G

E

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[s

s Edtl{:B

:.ffi,'*ffi...$'i. *,r d S

,m+ttt{*t*

Q.3) My operator provides variety of offers that suits my needs'

Scale I 2 3 4 t 6 7 Total

Responders 0 3 0 6 25 56 30 r20

Percentage 0 2.5 0 5.0 20.9 46.6 25 rcD%

Scale 1 2 3 4 t 6 7 Total

Responders 0 4 6 7 t2 70 2l r20

Percentage 0 3.3 5.0 5.8 10.0 58.3 t7.5 r00 %

(134)

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(

September 2014 Paridnva - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2.Issue-1

Interpretation :

Service Providers represents name or brand. There are top brands associated with results in

consumer feel proud in being associated with their operators.

Q.5) My operator is trustworthy and reliable.

#s

Fff

4s

ss

**

I R ,*, ,S

fnterpretation:

Recently number portability is easily available for consumer, so they can easily switch to other

service providers. In this scenario we found that most of the consumer feels that their operator is

trust worthy and reliable. In our survey we found that operators are reliable and trustworthy.

Q.6) My operator is transparent and keeps me fully updated.

'.9at

,:Er{5

sEIuodsF

E

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Scale I 2 3 4 t 6 7 Total

Responders I 4 aJ ) t5 6l 3l t20

Percentage 0.8 3.3 2.5 4.2 12.5 s0.8 25.8 rcO%

Scale I 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

Responders t7 68 28 I 0 I 2 120

Percentage 14.l s6.6 23.3 0.8 0 0.8 t.6 rcO%

(13s)

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(

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

Respauderx

I& 11{*$c*lder$

Interpretation :

There are various service offered by service providers like net pack, SMS pack etc. service

providers need to be transparent in the area ofnew plans, bill shades and service outage etc In

our survey we found that, service providers need to improve in this service and be more

transparent.

Q.7) My operator consistently delivers all services.

Scale 1 2 3 4 ! 6 7 Total

Responders 0 2 2 8 t9 78 1l r20

Percentage 0 r.6 1.6 6.6 15.8 65 9.1 t00 %

$i$ fl-^*..ru*. -*.**"ri:r---..**'*,'';^;-"n'$-"l

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(136)

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r

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

Interpretation:

Service as per commitment or as promised by provided by service

providers Q.8) Pricing is competitive and provides value for money.

Interpretation:

There is variation in prices provided by telecom operators. Variation is there in message pack, net

pack and local or STD calling rates. This price changes drastically from operator to operator'

We found that price must be competitive and should provide value for consumer money.

Q.9) My current tariff plan is clear and easy to understand.

f

Scale I 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

Responders 6 t9 58 30 6 6 0 120

Percentage 5.0 15.8 48.3 25 5.0 5.0 0 t00 %

Sftssp#dder$L:-IW

Mffi::t1*+ &:

r?B

r&fi:

d se'.G,]d

$.s6,'s fs{U5E "EgEH

iXS:.

*,S. $: ,S Sr ,E

rihert.csnfg .

Scale I 2 3 4 t 6 7 Total

Responders 0 2 4 7 20 66 2l t20

Percentage 0 1.6 3.3 5.8 16.7 )) 17.5 t00 %

(r37)

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s Rajgad Institute of Management Research & … paper pdf (2014...· 2020-02-25· Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune -43 Approved by - [PDF Document] (31)

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-l

Interpretation:

Consumers are very much clear about their current tariff plan.

Q.10) My experience about'purchase or changen in service.

$S iru'

4S[S*rts**kt

Interpretation :

Service providers are keen to sell their additional plans to consumer. In our research we found

that service providers better service in purchasing or change in service.

F#'ti

ss 'r

ffi

{[r tlt..t!srtR-;iLi

,:lc!is.c':*s.&:S,:*.E

t

**-*--*** J

1

i

___l

Scale I 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

Responders 0 5 4 9 1l 59 3l t20

Percentage 0 4.2 3.3 7.5 9.r 49.1 25.8 rc0%

(138)

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s Rajgad Institute of Management Research & … paper pdf (2014...· 2020-02-25· Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune -43 Approved by - [PDF Document] (32)

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-1

11) My operator's quality of Indoor Network Coverage.

I

t................... . .............-....

M Ss$${n,{$B$

Interpretation:

There is scope of improvement in quality of indoor network coverage as we found that service

providers are lacking in this area ofservice.

Q.12) My operator's quality of Outdoor Network Coverage and also while travelling or

roaming.

?$

s$

Ssna,S c*Hr :ls$#:fi LSg

.1S

$

Scale I 7 3 4 J 6 7 Total

Responders 7 t8 58 29 5 I 2 r20

Percentage 5.8 t5 48.3 24.r 4.2 0.8 1.6 t00 %

Scale 1 , 3 4 f, 6 7 Total

Responders 0 I 8 2 2l 62 26 120

Percentage 0 0.8 6.6 t.6 17.5 sl.6 2r.6 n0%

(13e)

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s Rajgad Institute of Management Research & … paper pdf (2014...· 2020-02-25· Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune -43 Approved by - [PDF Document] (33)

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

s s*,8i

S:ol-'*i

t'$ - -:-*:fuffigi

c8*'$$XsrtSffik

W

Interpretation :

In our survey we found that, consumer are happy about the operator's quality of outdoor

network coverage.

Q.13) Call Connectivity Experience.

Interpretation :

Many times consumers face problem like long time to connect, frequent beeps while trying to

dial etc. this also includes people period like New Year's event or festival days. We found

that there is need to improve in this area.

Scale I 2 3 4 t 6 7 Total

Responders 23 54 26 4 4 6 4 r20

Percentage 19.1 45 21.6 aaJ.J 5.5 s.0 3.3 t00 %

i o5$TIit{itttE40rtri#uutBi ,,8 ruIEdgl*ruIII;$

ffiW.ffiffi**w*

(140)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

Interpretation:

Consumer do face problem like no call drops, free from disturbance, echo, cross connections etc.

we found that consumer are not that much satisfactory about call quality provided by operator.

Q.15) Data service experience.

C

rW,

,w*,:r&Erys

#':.'.wH

#s*5

'F'' ,,r#

.$

Q.14) Call Qualify Experience.

Scale 1 2 3 4 J 6 7 Total

Responders 0 3 23 69 r8 6 I 1,20

Percentage 0 2.5 19.1 57.5 15 5.0 0.8 t00 %

&* H&ess#$*ltrss

s.;*xr{:*$.s*iih$'{#[4n$F

Scale I 2 3 4 f, 6 7 Total

Responders 9 26 53 2t 5 4 0 r20

Percentage 7.5 2r.6 44.1 17.5 4.2 3.3 0 r00 %

(141)

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(

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

Interpretation:

Especially in evening and Saturday,many of the consumers do face problem like lack

of connectivity in call and intemet service.

Q.16) In Past 6 months, for which issue(s) have you contacted the operator?

Interpretation:

In our survey we found that, maximum times consumer are contacting their operators for the

purpose of their complaints followed by Bill enquiry.

I 2 3 4 f, 6 Total

Plane

inquiry

payment

inquiry

Billinquiry

complaint ChangePurchas

request

Responders 15 I9 28 33 7 l8 120

Percentage t2.5 15.8 23.3 27.5 5.8 l5 r00 %

TF

Q.17) How many times have you approached your operator in the past 6 months?

I 2 3 4 5 Total

1-5 6-10 rt-20 More than2O none

Responders 25 9 5 tl 70 120

Percentage 20.8 7.5 4.2 9.1 58.3 rcO%

(r42)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal. Vol-2. Issue-l

Interpretation:

In our survey we found that frequency of consumer of meting their operator is less.

Q.18) Which chanet (s) you used?

is* -ffii'fiEgi*:K*lffi

i;'ffi- - ffi -;*;ffi ffiiT.W-w-"ffi*ffi--*t qgf $&S. Ss6t#f t|i|"n* Sf€*}{#f; {ffii+r n!"s

.w*fsgftKt$sr

Interpretation :

Consumer are using the option of call center to contact their operator followed store and

dealer visit and SMS.

I 2 3 4 J 6 Total

Call

centerSMS

Dealer

visitEmail Website

Social

media

Responders 64 7 36 6 aJ 4 t20

Percentage 53.3 5.8 30 5.0 2.5 3.3 rcI%

(r43)

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(

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

Q.19) How many times did you need to follow up for the same issue?

Interpretation :

For the follow up purposs of the same issue or complain, consumer experience is good as

maximum customers need to contact just once.

Q.20) On a scale of 1-5, rates the amount of effort you had to put to solve your

queries/ requests/complaints.

Scale I 2 3 Total

Ones More than ones never

Responders 78 3l 1l 120

Percentage 65 25.8 9.r r00 %

ffiw,

s*F

9S

ffisn#.

$s

s

ffiS*r*B**{&xu

ffiB&si${t*i

Scale I 2 3 4 f, Total

Less

effort

Slight

effort

Moderate

effort

Strong

effort

Extreme

effort

Responders 39 33 3l 9 8 r20

Percentage 32.5 27.5 2s.8 7.5 6.6 t00 %

(r44)

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s Rajgad Institute of Management Research & … paper pdf (2014...· 2020-02-25· Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune -43 Approved by - [PDF Document] (38)

{};I

i$*

:.r$.

r$*s::*$

**s

s,.

r.mr*Aort *lipt*#**f h{@r{irt:$f{wt

slrws fidiry@*$&ffi$' *r$f.w*;

(

September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-1

Interpretation:

The amount of effort consumer put to solve their queries or requests are slight effort.

Q.21) How many times you have raised complaints in past 6 months ?

Interpretation :

In our survey we found that many consumers have never raised any sort of complaints in past

6 months.

(

I 2 3 4 5 Total

l-5 6-10 IT-20 More than2O none

Responders 45 ll 1 2 6l 120

Percentage 37.5 9.1 0.8 1.6 50.8 100 %

ffi

,4*

*d}

*$

r{#

.s

f n**pa}{1l$e'i

:"r*e,: i${i*:rs. .*e'*r:ts

(l4s)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

Q.22) Regarding which issue you raised the complaint?

Interpretation:

Nearly 50% of the total responders never raised the complaints till date.

Maximum complaints raised by consumers are about network issues followed by recharge

issues and service activation issues.

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total

Network

Issue

Recharge

Issue

Service

activation

Payment

Issue

Product

Issue

DataserviceIssue

Roaming

ServiceIssue

NA

Responders t7 t4 8 7 5 6 2 6l t20

Percentage t4.r r1.66 6.6 5.8 4.2 5.0 r.6 50.8r00

%

70

6,0.

50

40.

w R€spCIridsils

"$

(r46)

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September 2014

SECONDARY DATA INTERPRETATION

illmhEr ot'8ubsc{ihers *E nl Juns E$14 tift,llllillisl1s}

Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

ffi"ffimtu"4

aS#4

$s

.i.ffi. 's.'s3

r"'*l*--*3b"sry'*KS#€

(

[Source: http ://www.coai.com/]

Interpretation:

GSM STIBSCRIBER FIGURES JUNE.2OIA

I Total number of GSM Subscribers as of June 2014 '739.57 million

2 The GSM Subscribers increased by 6.48 million in June 2014 (0.887o increasedfrom previous month)

3 Maximum GSM Subscribers - Airtel '209,25 million

/. CONCLUSION(

This study investigates the interface between consumer and telecom service providers.

Researchers found that the brand image of the service providers is near to excellent according

to consumer's perception as maximum customers feel proud and feel that their operators are

reliable and trustworthy. There is scope of improvement in call connectivity and service

delivery area in pricing, indoor network coverage, call quality, connectivity & data service.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STI]DY

l) Time period of the report was limited for two month only.

2) Some data is confidential due to we cannot take actual figure for to do proper research study.

3) The sample of 120 respondents may constitute a limitation due to its smallest nature of

sample.

H&SFr.FAS

(r47)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Joumal, Yol-2,Issue-1

REFERENCES

1) A.Churchill, G., & down, J. a. (2007). marketing research methodologicalfoundation

(Ninth ed.). Thomson south western.

2) Leon.G.Schiffinan, kanak, L.L., & Ramesh kumar, s.p. consumer behaviour

(Third ed.). Dorling kindersleypvt ltd.

3) M.S.Raju, & Dominique, x. (2009). consumer behaviour,concept and application.

new delhi: vikas publishing house.

4) R.Nair, S. (1995). consumer behaviour in indian perspection. delhi:

Himaliya publication house.

5) http://www.coai.com

6) http://www.trai.gov.in

7) Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006). Consumer Behaviour (10th Ed,). Thomson Learning

8) Deaton, Angus; Muellbauer, John, Economics and consumer behavior, Cambridge ;

New York : Cambridge University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-521-22850-6

9) Howard, J., Sheth, J.N. (1968), Theory of Buyer Behavior, J. Wiley & Sons, New York,

NY.

10) Kardes, Frank R.; Cronley, Maria L.; Cline, Thomas W., Consumer Behavior,Mason,

OH : South-Western, Cengage Learning, 20ll.ISBN 978-0-538-74540-6

11) Laermer, Richard; Simmons, Mark, Punk Marketing, New York : Harper Collins, 2007.

ISBN 978-0-06-115110-1 (Review of the book by Marilyn Scizzi, in Journal ofConsumer Marketing 24(7), 2007)

**a

(148)

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PARItrNYAThe MISM Rcsnerch J*urnal

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

Employee Retention through Employee Engagement :

Study Special reference with Retail Shoppe in Pune

Prof Roshna Jaid, Assistant Professor, Rajgad Institute of Management Research &

Development, Pune, Maharashtra, E.mail id : [emailprotected]

Miss. Snehal Kumbhare - MBA 2,a Year Student, E-mail id : [emailprotected]

Abstract

Employee engagement leads to commitment and psychological attachment and reflects in the

form of high retention (low attrition) of employees. The level of engagement in employees

can be enhanced by identifying its drivers (influential factors) and work on them. For the

purpose of study, the drivers of the employee engagement are identified and hypotheses have

been formulated. The relationship between employee retention and employee engagement is

examined from the response to separate questionnaires from 100 employees from different

retails Shoppe like DMart, CROMA, BigBazar, Central Malls, Season Mall who are chosen

based on random sampling.

The object of research paper study is to finds that the employee retention can be improved by

increasing the level of employee engagement and focusing on few non-financial drivers.

Practical implication of this study is the retention can be improved without financial

expenditure when there are economic constraints. Organizations can design good practices in

the light of findings to retain their best talent (highly skilled and specialized human resources)

without much financial burden.

Key words : Employee Engagement, Employee Retention, Employee Satisfaction, Financial

Benefits, Non Financial Benefits.

INTRODUCTION

Background ofStudy :

We've seen it happen many times. An organization that provides top wages and benefits loses a

great employee to a competitor for no apparent reason. Of course, some employee turnover is to

be expected, but if your company is truly engaging your employees, there is no good reason for

the unexpected loss of quality staff members. Many companies akeady know that wages and

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September 2014 Paridnva - The MIBM Research Journal. Vol-2. Issue-l

benefits are important to employees, but compensation alone is not enough to keep the highly

skilled, motivated and experienced workforce your business needs to excel.

About Retails :

Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers

are part ofan integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in

large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesale, and then sells smaller

quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations like stores

or markets, door-to-door or by delivery. In the 2000s, an increasing amount of retailing is done

using online websites, electronic payment, and then delivered via a courier or via other services.

Retailing includes subordinated services, such as delivery. The term "retailer" is also applied

where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as for the

public. Shops may be on residential streets, streets with few or no houses or in a shopping

mall. Shopping streets may be for pedestrians only.

Retail Sector & Pune :

Pune has come a long way in recent times. The thriving IT market, automobile boom, strong student

community, rising service sector, robust estate market and increase in the number of professionals have

led to a sharp expansion of the city. This rapid urbanization, and the new demands of Pune's global

citizens, has led to a rise in the number of malls, offering high-end brands.

The retail sector in Pune was earlier confined to a few markets which were unorganized,

chaotic and crowded. In the last two years, however, the rise in modern retail outlets can be

seen across the city. Koregaon Park Plaza, Inorbit, Phoenix Market City, Pulse, Kumar

Pacific Mall and Amanora Town Center are the new ones that have joined the already existing

malls like Jewel Square, S.G.S Mall, Mariplex, Central and Ishanya, to name a few. In a

scenario where five malls have opened in the last one year. In Pune city presently 24125 malls

are available in different city of Pune.

Objective of Research :

To Understand, Analyze & find that the employee retention can be improved by increasing

the level of employee engagement and focusing on few non-financial drivers.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Employee engagement-Meaning & definitions Employee engagement is defined as employees'

willingness and ability to help their company succeed, largely by providing discretionary effort on

sustainable basis (Perrin's Global work study, 2003). Another study (Scarlett survey) views it as

measureable degree of an employees' emotional attachment to their job, colleagues and

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

organization that profoundly influences their willingness to learn and perform at work. The

employee engagement is an emergent working condition and a positive cognitive, emotional

and behavioral state directed toward organizational outcomes (Shuck & Wollard, 2009).

Gallup (which is known as authority on employee engagement) relates employee engagement

to a positive employee's emotional attachment and employee's commitment (Demovsek D,

2008). Thus the employee engagement make employees emotionally bonded to their

organization and tend them to become passionate about their work and hence results in

improvement of employee retention.

Impact on Employee Retention Employees are assets of any organization and organization always

try to avoid losing the key performers. Employee retention can be defined differently as per the

context of its usage. It can be represented mathematically in percentage such as retention level is

87o/o,whichmeans the organization could keep its 87Yo of its employees with them for a specified

period which is normally taken as a year. In other context employee retention refers to the ability

of an organization to retain its employees. In this case the employee retention is considered as a

strategy, based on the effort by which the organization attempts to retain the employees.

Employee retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the

organiz-ation for the maximum period. Whereas retention management has become major source

of competitive advantage in the modern rapidly globalizing business world (Vaiman,

2008).Randenbush, S.W. &Bryk, A.S. (2002) argue that the employee turnover affects family,

organization and society. It brings stress in family as relocation of family and employee will

become necessary and financially related issues in connection with the relocation also arise. For

organization it may lead to disruption of service to clients and dissatisfaction of employees due to

extra workload. When an employee with critical skills to support the society leaves the

organization, it impacts the society badly. With retention a growing concem for organizations,

understanding the factors that drive commitrnent and loyalty among employees is essential for

managing increasing tumover risk in the months and years ahead, (Mark Royal, Hay Group News

release,20ll). As per Corporate Leadership Council report (2008) the highly engaged

organizations have the potential to reduce the staff tumover by 87o/o, the disengaged are four

times more likely leave organization than average employees. It was observed that the employee

retention can be improved by improving employee engagement.

Role of HRM in Employee Engagement & Retention:

Human Resources Management (HRM) play important role in retention of.employees.HR

managers have to identiff the right retention strategies which their employees perceive to be

effective. Good HRM practices in the area of compensation, reward, career development,

supervisors' support, and culture and work environment can help to improve retention (Meyer

(1se)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, yol-2,Issue-l

and Allan, l99l; Solomon, 1992; Snell and Dean, Igg2). Matty organizations now utrlizeextensive range of human resources management factors that influence employee commitrnentand retention (Stein, 2000; Beck, 2001; Clarke, 2001;Parker and Wright, 2001). According tothem, the factors which influence employee retention are work environment, supervisor support,organization image, employee value match, remuneration, reward and recognition, employees'career development etc.Hay Group study(2011) has identified five key factors that differentiate"stayers" (those committed to the company more than two years) from "leavers,' (those planningto leave in two years or less).The key factors are confidence in the organization and leadership,room for employees to grow, a fair exchange between organization and employee, an environmentfor success and authority and influence. Factors influencing engagement include workenvironment, rewards and recognition, career development, supervisor/leader,compensatior/remuneration, and employee- organization value match.

Work environment is considered one of the most important factors in the employee retention(Zeytinoglu & Denton, 2005) and people strive to work and to stay in those corporations thatprovide good and positive work environment (Ramlal 2003). Study by Wiesenberger andAssociates (1993) suggest that employees' view regarding organization is strongly concerned totheir relationship with supervisor. Recognition from bosses, team members, co-workers andcustomers enhance the loyalty and retention. Several studies have highlighted the linkage betweenrewards and employee retention and it has been the most I important factor for attracting andretaining the talent (Williams and Dreher,1992; Watson Wyatt, 1999; Willis, 2000; Tower perrin,

2003; Mercet, 2003). Career development is also very important for employee retention.Employees are keen to advanoe in their career, organization desires to strengthen their bond withemployees must spend on development of employees (Hall & Moss, l98S). Study by prince

(2005)also advocates that to gain competitive advantage, organization requires talented andproductive employees and the latter need career development to enhance and cultivate theircompetencies.Freyermuth Q007) also recommends that the organization must groom leaders tosupport the employees and to build the work environment where workers want to stay.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

. Scope, Sample & Methodology:

Area of the study is a different Retail Malls / Shopee available in Pune area. In pune 24 totalmalls / shopee's available, whose employee strength is near about 3000. Only 5 malls weretargeted for the research & from that I selected 100 employees, distributed questionnaire to allgot reply from 78 employees. Sample size took for this research is 78. Random samplingtechnique used for research.

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September 2014 Paridnva - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

. Research period : From 2010 -2013 for evaluating Non financial drivers .

. Drivers of the Employee Engagement:

Initially few drivers of employee engagement were identified with help of literature review' Based

on the impact analysis, followings drivers were shortlisted like drivers of engagement,

communication, rewards & recognition, compensation and benefltts, manager/supervisor

relationship ) career development, teamwork, role clarity, work environment and work life

balance, action plans are drawn and implemented only for drivers with non-financial support'

Many action plans were implemented on these drivers - communication, rewards & recognition'

manager and supervisor relationship, teamwork, role clarity and work environment, few of them

to mention are on spot appreciations, green cards, silver cards, star of the month, town hall

meetings, skip level meetings, one to one meetings, CEO'monthly meetings, open door policy,

department steering committee meetings, internal coordination committees, team activities, team

building exercises, reporting channel streamlining, induction of HR buddy to each department to

improve the HR process and HR helpdesk etc. Questionnaires were classified in four groups'

. Hypotheses:

HO (Null Hypothesis) : There is no significant impact of implementation of action plans for

non-financial drivers to the level of engagement of employees.

Hl : There is significant improvement in the level of employee retention due to increase in

the level of employee engagement.

The hypotheses have been tested and the results have been arrived at.

. Data sources: Quantitative research technique is used and this study is descriptive in nature.

Both primary and secondary datahave been used in this study. Primary data was collected

through a questionnaire and secondary data was collected from documentation section of

each department.

. InstrumentDevelopment

Even though a number of instruments are available that measure the retention level of

employees, they are not customized for retails sector. After long discussions with senior

management team and representatives from shops, following are influencing factors of

retention were identified. Then in response to exit interview questions the influencing factors

were analyzed. Based on analyses discussions the final questionnaire for evaluating the

retention was formed. As the focus of the study is on improving retention through employee

engagement, the level of employee engagement was also evaluated.

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2'Issue-1

. Reliability Test : The data collected thorough questionnaire was subjected to reliability

test, which shown strong internal consistency among the given items and hence satisfied'

. Data collection After preparing both questionnaires the data was collected for finding out

the initial level of engagement and retention of employees' After this asked' to the

manager of the retail shopee to implement many engagement boosting activities' Manager

was implemented on the drivers which don't require financial support. The hypotheses

have been formulated for the pu{pose of the study. The resurt was studied in comparison

with original scores and the hypotheses were tested'

. Data analysis Initial levels of engagement of employees were evaluated from the response

given by the 100 employees from 5 malls to the questionnaire which contains four parts'

similarly the initial levels of employee retention also were evaluated by administrating

another questionnaire with fow parts. change in the level of employee engagement was

evaluated after implementing the action plans decided in the expert and management

meeting. Paired t-test used to test the hypotheses'

. Limitation of the study is that it has not gone in details to analyze the impact of each

drivers separately, instead had a holistic approach'

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The data obtained is subjected to statistical testing and the results obtained were analyzed and

the discussions follow.

Impact of Morale boost plans /non-financial drivers on employee engagement Hl: There is no

significant impact of implementation of action plans for non-financial drivers to the level of

engagement of employees. From the following data analysis & interpretation, null hypothesis

Hl rejected. This means, there is a significant association or impact of the implemented

action plans to the level of engagement of employees. Even though the implemented action

plans were only addressed the non-financial drivers of employee engagement it has made a

significant improvement in the level of employee engagement'

Impact of the employee engagement on employee retention. Hl: There is significant improvement

in the level of employee retention due to increase in the level of employee engagement (Hl)'

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-l

1. FIGURES AND TABLES

Table 1: Drivers of Employee Engagement

Company

Sr. No Main Drivers Selected DriversI Communication Communication, Rewards & Recosnition Rewards & RecoenitionJ Manaeer / Suoervisor relationship Manaqer / Supervisor Relationship

4 Teamwork Teamwork5 Role Claritv Role ClariW6 Work Environment Work Environment7 Career Development8 Compensation & Benefits9 Work Life Balance

Table No 2 : Main Factors influencing Retention of Employee

Sr.

NoInfluencing Factors (By Different Studies) Selected Factors (Based on Exit Interview)

I Organization Image Oreanization Imase2 Emplovee - Orsanization Value Match Work EnvironmentJ Remuneration & Compensation Employee - Employer Relation4 Work Environment Emplovee Values Match5 Relation between Manager & Employee Remuneration & Compensation

6 Career Development Career Development7 Job Securitv Rewards & Recoenition8 Decision takine Dower Future of the Company9 Flexi timingl0 Work Content11 ?ersonal Factors

of the(Table. No 3: Employee Engagement Level Evaluation

Sr.

NoEngagement Factors

Engagement

level before

(out of 78)

Engagement

Level after(78)

Difference between

before & after

I Orsanization Image 68 72 4

2 Work Environment 58 69 ll3 Employee - Employer Relation 62 7l 9

4 Emolovee Values Match 54 63 9

5 Remuneration & Compensation 6l 73 12

6 Career Development 64 72 8

7 Rewards & Recognition 6l 75 t4

8 Future of the Company 66 74 8

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September 2014

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Interpretation : Table shows that the difference between before & after of engagement level

of employee for their retention evaluation'

Table No.4 Retention Level Evaluation (Employee Perceived score)

Engagement Factors

RetentionScore before

implementationof action Plan

RetentionScore after

implementation

of action Plan

DifferenceSr.

No

I Organization Image 74 77 3

2 Work Environment 81 84 3

J Employee - EmPloYer Relation 78 85 7

4 Employee Values Match 76 79 3

5 Remuneration & ComPensation 84 83 -1

6 Career DeveloPment 73 77 4

7 Rewards & Recognition 79 84 f,

8 Future of the ComPanY 81 85 4

(r64)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

Retentinn LeUei Fv-a'luatien,ss fiifferencsr

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Interpretation : Above table shows that the retention scores - employee perceived before &

after implementation of action plan for the employees.

CONCLUSION

The present study conducted in light of high employee turnover rate in retail sector. The study

brought out how employee retention can be improved by improving engagement level of

employees. There was statistical evidence in the study to confirm that the employee retention

can be improved by addressing non-financial drivers of employee engagement like

communication, recognition, employee-employer relationship, work environment, future of

the company, career development Therefore it has given a very positive message that even

without financial expenditure the employee engagement and hence retention can be improved.

As such the future studies can be conducted in two directions: one to find the impact of non-

financial drivers on the employee engagement and retention and the other to include financial

drivers of employee engagement and have an elaborate study of the impact of engagement

drivers on employee engagement and retention.

References :

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retail

mal I s-helF-Fune-retai l-sector-grow-further/3 7" <0-html

3. India's 10 biggest malls - Rediff.com Business. Rediff.com (2013-04-24). Retrieved on

2013-12-06.

2. l-estate-news-i

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-1

4. Agarwal, R. and T..W.Ferratt,Enduring practices for managing IT professionals,

Communications of the ACM,S'4 5 (9),2002,7 3'7 9'

5. Chaminade,B.A.,Retention checklist: How do you rate?.,www.humanresource

magazine. co.au accessed on 28 Nov 2007 -

6. Corporate Leadership Council, Improving employee performance in economic

downtime,2g07, (Corporate Executive board, Washington, DC). Deovsek,D.,Creating

highly engaged and committed employees starts atthetop and ends at the bottom line,

Credit union national.

7. Hay Group ,News release ,2011,1 in 4 Indian employees set to switch jobs as growth picks

up [11] Mark Royal, 1 in 4 Indian employees set to switch job as growth picks up, Hay

( group, news release 201| llzJ Mercer, People at work survey report , Human resource

management report 2003,8-15 tl3l Meyer,J.P. and AllanN.J., A three component

conceptuali zationof organizational commitment, Human resources management Review

r,1991,89-93.

8. Tower, Perrin, Rewards: the not-s-secret ingredient for managing talent (retention)

,HR focus,80( I ),2003,3- I 0.

g. [23] Vaiman,V, Retention management as a means of protecting Tacit Knowledge in

anorganization: A conceptual framework for

10. professional services frrms, International Joumal of Learning and Intellectual

Capital 5 (20),2008,17 2-185 -

11. [24] Watson,Wyatt, Work usA 2000:Empliyee commitment and

/ bottom line,Belhesda,MD:Watson Wyatt,l999'43-58

' IZ. l15lwhitt,W.,The impact of increased employee retention on performance in

customer contact center, Manufacturing

13. Services operation management, 8(3), 2006'235'252'

14. [26] William,M.,Dreher,G., Compensation systems attributes and applicant

pool characteristics, Academy of management

15. Joumal, 435, 1992,57 l'95.

16.[27]Wills.,Goforyourgoals,workingwomen,2000,6-7

N.*':'

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Volume 2, lssue 1, September ZAM

Table of Contents

Editorial

Editorial

Nived ita Ekbote, Vijayalakshmi Sri nivas

Total vie$/s: 146

R.esearch Paper

A,n Innovative ;xperiment in Quality Management

Shirish Limaye

Total views: 273

A eue$t ror Excerrenc€ t' -tr".'".rr";;,;; ;;;;;"rr",'" ".r"p*"riu" "nathe Role of Spiritual Quotient

Nivedita G. Ekbote

Total views: 285

A Study of the R€lationship b€tween Rspurchase and Brand Loyalty for lceCream of Amul and $aras in laipur City

Tulika Sood, Suneeli Anand

Total views: 364

Doing cood is Good for Business

Sonal Trivedi, Vinita Choudhary

Total views: 171

Behavioral Finance with Reference to Student f$ve$tors

S, Ashwin, Aishwarya Kalyanshetti

Total views: 287

Problems in Retention of lledical R€pres€ntative$ in Selected Pharms{enticalCompanies in Pune

Ashish Mohture, Vani Laturkar

Total views: 108

"The Analytical Study of the Skill Development in ttilailagement EducaiionPune University"

N. Ganbote Akshay, Bhave Santosh

Total views: 88

Employee Engagcment: An Overview

Dipti Kanwar, Pooja Sharma

Total views:

tnventory cortrol by Kanban Based Full sy$tem Implementation

Vlrendra Konde, Rohan P. Dahivale

Total views: 110

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Rajesh Rauq Vijayalakshmi Srinivas

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Title : Lcadership with Conscience

Sharayu Bhakare

Total views: 83

Frugal Innovations for Financial Incluslon (FI4FI) of Yee Bank Ltd.

Ruski Mahal

Total views: 119

----------A $tudy on Awareness & Perspective of Over-The-Counter (OTC) i.e' f{onProscribed Drugs among Consumer's in Pune City

Mrinalini Lad, Nilesh Berad

Total views: 309

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101-105

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121-130

"A Study of'Consumer and Telecom Service Providert Interface' in PuneCity"

Tushar Funde, Rohan P. Dahivale

Total views: 279

;';;;;;;;;;;;*p*"t" to curtivate customer Retationships

Shubhangi Chavan, Tejashri Phalke

Total views: 150

Bhel131-148

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149-156

xmpact of Emotional IntelligEnce on Leadership at workpl.ce

Tushar Ashok Kadlag

Total views: 117

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Employ€€ Retention thr.lugh Employee Engagementistudy Speclal Ref€r€n€e$rith R€tail Shoppe in Pune

Roshna lald, Snehal Kumbhare

Total views: 152

RecGnt Trends and Challengee Faced by Flutual Funds In xndia

Renuka Walunj, Danlel Penkar

Total views: 99

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, YoI-2' Issue-l

Inventory control by Kanban Based Pull System Implementation

Virendra Konde, Student, Raigad Institute of Management Research

D evel opment, Dhankaw a di, Pune' E -mail : virg 6konde@r ediffmail. com

Mr. Rohan P. Dahivale, Assistant Professor, Rajgad Institute of Management

Res earch D evelopment, Dhankawadi, Pune

ABSTRACT

Business organizations today are facing great competitions & challenges as the economy is

growing. The growth & the downfall of the company depend upon how it uses its resources'

There is need to control Inventory and Smooth Flow of Inform-ation'

In manufacturing industry, almost 60oh oftotal cost is constituted by the inventory' Kanban

system which is one of the tools to maintain inventory at optimum level is used in various

man-ufacturing organizations. This system helps in fulfilling all the above mentioned

characters, that is, it provides smooth flow of information, 'pull technology' in production

(material movement) and hence helps in maintaining the inventory at optimum level'

Kanban system has been implemented and observed firstly for 8043 piston line, which is re-

lated to power steering product. Also after gaining positive results from the system at 8043

piston line as well as positive feedback from top management, there was a time to give

training to other cell leaders and operators related to different part's cells to implement the

system suc-cessfully there and for achieving positive results in return'

Keywords : KANBAN, Pull system, Inventory control, Kanban cards]

CONCEPTS

Kanban is a scheduling system for lean and just-in-time(JlT) production' Kanban is a system to

control the logistical chain from a production point of view, and is not an inventory control system'

Kanban was developed by 'Taiichi ohno" at Toyota, as a system to improve and maintain a

high level of production. Kanban is one method through which JIT is achieved'

Kanban became an effective tool in support of running a production system as a whole and it

proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvement. Problem areas were highlighted by

reducing the number of kanban in circulation. one of the main benefits of Kanban is to establish

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2,Issue-1

an upper limit to the work in progress inventory, avoiding overloading of the manufacturing

system.

Kanban Origins

In the late 1940s, Toyota started studying supermarkets with the idea of applying shelf-

stocking techniques to the factory floor. In a supermarket, customers obtain the required

quantity of product at the required time; no more and no less' Furthermore, the supermarket

stocks only what it expects to sell within a given time frame, and customers take only what

they need, since future supply is assured.

Taiichi ohno stated that to be effectiv'e, kanban must follow strict rules of use. Toyota, for ex-

ample, has six simple rules, and close monitoring of these rules is a never-ending task,

thereby ensuring that the Kanban does what is required'

Kanban Cards

Kanban cards are a key component of kanban and they signal the need to move materials within a

production facility or to move materials from an outside supplier in to the production facility. The

kanban card is, in effect, a message that signals depletion of product, parts or inventory that, when

received, the kanban will trigger the replenishment of that product, part or inventory.

Consumption therefore drives demand for more production, and demand for more products is

signaled by the kanban card. Kanban cards therefore help create a demand-driven system.

Kan-ban cards, in keeping with the principles of kanban, simply convey the need for more

materials. A red card lying in an empty parts cart conveys that more parts are needed.

The Contents of the Kanban

No. of Kanban cards : (Expected demand during lead time + Safety stock) / Size of the con-

tainer.

The Kanban system is flexible system. This system can be easily adjusted to fit the current

way. The system is operating because card sets can be easily added or removed from the

system. If the workers find that are not able to consistently replenish the item on time, an

additional con-tainer of material with the accompanying Kanban cards can be added. If it is

found that excess containers of material accumulate, card sets can be easily removed thus

reducing the amount of inventory.

Kanban PartName Part Number KanbanNumber

Work Station (From) Work Station (To) Quantity Container Number

(8e)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Vol-2, Issue-l

Advantages of Using the Kanban System

. Flexibility

. Focus on continuous delivery

. Reduction of wasted work / wasted time

. Increased productivity & efficiency

. Team members' ability to focus

S*rn*nd,xnar.**

Figure: Operating principle of Kanban System

( OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

L. To study the current inventory & production system'

2. To design the Kanban card for flow of information.

3. To implement Kanban card to convert present push system of material movement into

pull system.

RESEARCH PROBLEM AREA

Economists and business analysts alike have long recognized the central role played by swings in

inventory accumulation during cyclical contractions in the economy. The importance of un-

derstanding inventory behavior cannot be overstated when analyzingbusiness cycles. Although it

is easy to see how inventories are important in cyclical fluctuations, other aspects of inventory

behavior remain poorly understood. For example, to what extent have firms lived up to much

(e0)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Joumal' Yol'2' Issue-l

lauded .Just-in-time" inventory management techniques? If inventory holdings truly have

fall.en,whatdoesthisimplyabouttheroleofinventoriesinfuturecyclicalfluctuations?

onesuchtoolusedtocontroltheinventoriesisKanbansystem.TheJapaneserefertoKanban

asasimpleparts-movementsystemthatdependsoncardsandboxes/containerstotakeparts

fromoneworkstationtoanotheronaproductionline.

The essence of the Kanban concept is that a preceding process should only deliver components to

the succeeding process as and when they are needed, so that there is no storage in the produc-tion

area. within this system, workstations/store along production lines only produce/deliver desired

componentswhentheyreceiveacard'ssignalandanemptycontainer,indicatingthatmoreparts

are needed in production. ln case of line intemrptions, each work-station will only produce

( ,nough components to fill the container and then stop. In addition, Kanban limits the amount of

inventory in the process by acting as an authoizationto produce more inventories'

since Kanban is a chain process in which orders flow from one pfocess to another' the

produc-tion or deliveries of components are pulled to the production line' in contrast to the

traditional forecast oriented method where parts are pushed to the line. An attempt has been

made in this project to understand and implement the Kanban system in inventory control so

as to make sure that components flow as well as information flow should be smooth to meet

the requirements of the shop floor. So to overcome these problems, this topic was selected'

RESEARCH DESIGN

(

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Before implementing the Kanban system, study of their present manufacturing process' ma-

chines, the types of parts they were manufacturing, the types of parts they were outsourcing etc

was done. At initial stage, researchers concentrated on a product called power steering' For

Analyical Research

Quantitative

Primary and Secondary sourcesSources of data collection

Observation, interview and field survey

Books, Journals, Articles, Magazines

Company Data SheetsSecondary sources

Mathematical Calculations using formulas'

(e1)

...!!!

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal' Vol-2' Issue-l

manufacturingpowersteeringcellularmanufacturingprocesswasbeingused.CellularManu.

facturing is based on the principle of Group Technology

By studying present scenario of production, researchers found that the technology they were

using for movement of components or materiars or parts was push technology' It means that

the moment pafls were manufactured by the preceding process; they were got delivered to

suc-ceeding process. Though there was no requirement of parts at succeeding process' it was

got delivered by the preceding process'

The safety inventory they were maintaining at shop floor is quite less than that of heat

treatrnent plant, because heat treatment plant was having operations like Hardening and

carburizing, which were having cycle time of l2hours and 36 hours respectively'

Due to such long cycle time they were keeping large amount of safety stock for heat ffeatment

plant. As it has already said that the number of inventory they were maintaining was totally

flexible quantity and it was varying according to the monthly predicted demand of product

(e.g. 8043 power steering) by customers'

ToDesigntheKanbanCardforSmoothFlowoflnformation

use of Pull technotogy principle and card mechanism of Kanban system will help in over-

coming the above mentioned weaknesses of the production practices in the company' ":":t'

researchers started to implement Kanban system for power steering' As it has mentioned that

power steering is a combination of various parts like, piston, nut, worm, end cover etc'

research-ers took first piston part for implementation of Kanban system because of its

complex nature of manufacturing'

Also, there were three types of piston which are 8043 piston' MO33 piston and 8033 piston'

Because of the more demand, go43 piston was selected. Initial stage of implementing the

Kan-ban system, is to design a Kanban card. with the help of discussion with respective cell

leader, production manager, gurde, etc. researchers designed Kanban cards' The type of

Kanbansystemwhichwasgoingtoimplementthere,wasDoubleKanbansystem.Inthat,.the

withdrawal Kan-ban card was denoted by ye110w sheet while the production Kanban card

was denoted by green sheet. Two different colors were used to avoid the confusion of users of

the cards. The contents which are shown in Kanban card was according to need and

requirement of a cell leader, oper-ators and casuals

Followings are the meaning of terms used in Kanban card'

1. Production Kanban card: This card should be at output side of process' (Items ready for Dispatch)

2. withdrawal Kanban card: This card should be at input side of process' (Items to be

received for Processing)

(s2). '''-.'

(

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol'2,Issue-l

3. Item Description and part number denotes the information about type of component

which is to be kept in that particular trolley. e. g. Piston 8043

4. One trolley should contain one card'

5. Subsequent process should pull material from preceding process with exchange of cards'

e. g. Hardening process should pull trolley of piston from piston carburizing cell'

6. Trolley Capacity: This is the optimum number of quantity of component which should be

kept in one particular trolley, to which that card is attached. Trolley should not contain

less than or more than that particular trolley capacity. e. g. For 8043 Piston, Trolley

Capacity:48

7. Location From: This is the l0cation from where information is sent'

g. Location To: This is the location at which information is collected. e. g. Information

(Kan-ban card) is sent from Heat Treatment Plant (Hardening) and is collected at Piston

Carbu-rized Cell.

g. Issue Number: This is denoted by 'a/b' .Where 'a' is the number of that particular card

and 'b' is the total number of cards. e. g.ll3

The formula for calculating number of Kanban is as bellow:

K: DL (l+S) / C

Where, K = Number of Kanban

D : Demand per hour

L : Lead Time or Replenishment Time of Kanban in(

hours S : Safety Requirement (10%)

C : Size of Container or Kanban (According to Thumb Rule, it is nearly 10% of

DailyDemand)

As it has mentioned that according to Thumb Rule, the size of container is nearly 10% of daily

demand, but by considering the material carrying cost and the holding cost, it was not possible to

take it as l1vo of daity demand so we took it as an optimum balancing figure. The size of

container we had considered was depending on the size and weight of parts which had to trans-fer

as well as the distance between two cells where the parts had to transfer. As hardening and

carburizing operations were at heat treatment plant, also some cells related to power steering

product were at plant-2 while some were at plant-3, so taking size of container as only l0% of

daily demand for long distance movement of parts was quite uneconomical. Hence, after

(e3)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal' Vol-2' Issue-l

considering all these things, we found the final container sizes for each type of parts of power

steering like, piston, sector shaft, wofln' nut' etc'

Asasampleexample,thecalculationofnumberofKanbanaswellasinventory'accordingto

formura given above, for go43 hard piston ce' is shown betow. e. g. Lead time for 8043

hard piston = 3.55 hours

Demand Per hour: 10

Size of container = 48

SafetY requirement : l0o/o

Number of Kanban : [10 * 3'55 * (1 + 0'1)] / 48

: 0.79 / hour

: 0.79 * 16 I daY

: 12.60 - 13 I daY

Also, total inventory Per daY = 13 * 48

:624 I day

Though, there were some variances in between practically implemented and theoretically cal-

curated values of inventory, they had kept practicaily impremented value of inventory as it is

for most of the parts. That was, because to satisff or to give response to customer's sudden

require-ment. So, that excess inventory was coming under the opportunity cost' While they

had also done some slight changes in practically implemented inventory value for some parts,

according to their theoretically calculated value'

To Implement Kanban card to convert Present Push system of Material

Movement into Pull SYstem

AfterdesigningofKanbancard,theactualworkingorusoofthatcardwasstarted.Dual

Kanban system was implemented for 8043 piston cell. In this system two types of card were

used, first one is Production Kanban card and second one is withdrawat Kanban card'

production Kanban card should be use at the output side, white withdrawal Kanban card

shoutd be use at the input side of cell. As there was a cellular manufacturing used for the

production in the company, the pistons were also produced through different cells'

Theproductionof8043pistonwasthroughfollowingstages.

1. Raw materials for 8043 piston were supplied from store to soft piston cell'

2. After processing at soft piston cell, the outputs of that cell were supplied to heat treatment

(e4)

rfl

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal' Yol'2'Issue-l

plant for carburizing operation. The cycle time for carburizing operation was 36 hours'

3. In this,stag e, carbtxized materials or parts were supplied to piston carburized cell for fur-

ther Processing.

4. After getting processed, they were supplied to agaitheat treatment ptant for hardening

operation. The.cycle time for hardening operation was 12 hours'

5.Thisisthestageofproductionoffinished8043piston'wherehardenedmaterialsorparts

from heat treatment plant were supplied to piston hard cell for some final processing'

6. At this stage, the finished go43 hard pistons were supplied to washing and after getting

washed, they were ready for final assembly operation'

T.Afterassemblingofdifferentpartsatassemblysection'thefinalpowersteeringproducts

were supplied to dispatch area, where products were ready for dispatching'

These all are the key stages which shourd be considered while implementation of Kanban sys-

tem. As Kanban system is based on a pulr technology, researchers started imprementing it

fromdispatchtoassembly,assemblytohardpistoncell,hardpistoncelltoheattreatment

plant (hardening), heat treatment plant to piston carburized cell' piston carburized cell to

againheattreatmentplant(carburizing),heattreatmentplanttosoftpistoncell&fromsoft

piston cell to store at the end'

First researchers found the total number of models of power steering which were stored at

dispatch for final delivery to the customers and collected information about the inventory or

stocks they were maintaining for each of the total models. After discussing with the guide and

supervisor of dispatch area, reseafchers divide total stocks into optimum batch size or lot size'

This was the size which should be considered as trolley capacity in Kanban card' The inven-

tory or stocks of a final product which they were maintaining at dispatch area was based on

their practical experiences and monthly predicted demand of products from customers' It was

not based on any theoretical formula of calculating number of Kanban which researchers have

already mentioned above.

Followingtablegivesinformationabouttypesofpowersteeringmodel,totalstocksofrespec.

tive modet, trolley capacity and number of Kanban cards for each model.

(es)

!!

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Joumal' Yol'2'Issue-l

Note : The flgures of Total Stock Quantity which have given in the table was based on the

monthly predicted demand plan in the month of July'

The figures of stock quantity, trolley capacity and number of Kanban which have mentioned

above are totally flexible and it will be adjusted according to the customer demands'

After deciding optimum trolley capacity and number of Kanban for each of the model of power

steering, researcher handed over the calculated number of Kanban cards to supervisor of dispatch

arca andalso explained the whole procedure to him about the functioning of this system' As per

thefunctioningofPulltechnology,dispatcharea(succeedingprocess)hadtopullmaterialfrom

assembly area ftlreceding process), so researcher also explained the each and every terms and

functioning of Kanban system to assembly in-charge, supervisor and operators'

TrolleY CaPacitYNumber of Kanban

cardsModel Name Total Stock QuantitY

78043-302 700 100

48043-303 160 40

5608043-806 300

58043-169 300 60

48C,43-294 r00 25

480,43-215 100 25

2so43-810 50 25

28043-820 30 15

8043-821 30 15 2

15 2so43-805 30

28043-804 30 15

4so43-826 200 50

28C,43-244 50 25

(e6)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal' Yol-2' Issue-l

The inventory they were keeping for each cell was as follows:

- For Hard Piston Cell,

8043 RH -- 144 & 8O43LH:96

- For Piston Carburized Cell,

8043 RH : 144 & 8O43LH:96

- For Soft Piston Cell,

8043:144

- For Hardening Cell of Heat Treatment

Plant, 8043 RH:288 & 8043 LH = 192

- For Carburizing Cell of Heat Treatment

Plant, 8043 :288

with the help of quantity of inventories which have been mentioned above & capacity of trol-

ley,IcalculatedthenumbersofKanbanforeachrespectivecellandforeachsub-typesof

8043 piston were calculated' These are given bellow:

- For Hard Piston Cell,

8043RH:3 & 8043LH:2

- For Piston Carburized Cell,

8043 RH:3 &8O43LH=2

- For Soft Piston Cell,

8043 = 3

- For Hardening Cell of Heat Treatment

Plant, 8043 RH = 6 & 8043 LH-- 4

- For Carburizing Cell of Heat Treatment

Plant, 8043 = 6

Note: The mentioned data of number of Kanban cards and stock of inventory was according

to the monthly predicted demand in the month of July'

After implementing the Kanban system from dispatch to assembly and from assembly to

machining centre according to the Pull technology, it was implemented to store' In that' raw

materiars or parts were pulled by the soft piston ce[ from store. Here arso, the functioning of

(e7)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal' Yol'2' Issue-l

the system was explained to each and every concerned person' while implementing Kanban

systemfromsoftpistoncelltostore,withdrawalcardwaskeptattheinputsideofcell,which

was giving withdrawing signal to store. For that optimum number of'Kanban cards and trolley

capacity was decided by discussing with gurde and concerned persons which was 2 and 40

respectivelY.

(

DisPatch

,l

AssemblY

*Ilard Piston Cell (outPut)

*Hard Piston Cell (inPut)

*Hardening (outPut)

+

Ilardening (inPut)

+

Carburized Piston Cell (outPut)

*Carburized Piston Cell (inPut)

+

Carburizing (outPut)

+

Carburizing (inPut)

*Soft Piston Cell (outPut)

Soft Piston Celt (inPut)

*Store (Raw material)

Kanban card (for different models)

Withdrawal Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Production Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Withdrawal Kanban (TrolleY C':48)

Production Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Withdrawal Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Production Kanban (Trolley C' =48)

Withdrawal Kanban (Trolley C' = 48)

Production Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Withdrawal Kanban (Trolley C' = 48)

Production Kanban (TrolleY C' :48)

Withdrawal Kanban (TrolleY C' :40)

(

FINDINGS

There was a difference in practicaily impremented and theoretically calculated inventory value of

different parts of power steering. They have kept practically implemented value of inventory

(e8)

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september 2014 paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, yor-2,Issue-1

asitisformostofthepartsofpowersteeringasanopportunitycosttosatisfycustomer's

sudden demands'

Theyhavemadefewchangesininventoryvalueofsomepartsofpowersteeringaccordingto

the theoretically calculated value of the inventory'

RECOMMENDATIONS

l.Amoredetailstudyshouldbedonetoavoidexcessofinventoryinordertoreduce

oPPortunitY cost'

2,Asimplementationhasbeendoneforthepistoncell,itcanbeimplementedtoothercells

as well as for the other Products'

( 3. Implementation of basic Kanban card has been done but in future, Barcode Kanban card

system can be implemented to control system centrally'

LIMITATIONS OF THE STT]DY

l.Sincethisisaspecialactivity,therewassomerestrictiontoshareinformation'

2. Calculation of daily demand for different components on every production line is a time

consuming Process'

3. In some cases concern person did not give desired information at the required time

andalsosomewereshowingresistancetochange.Itmeans,theywereopposingtothe

imPlementation of new sYstem'

4. Kanban system includes the manual intervention & hence it is not possible to eliminate

-. the effors 100%.(

REFERENCES

l.Waldner,Jean-Baptiste(September|992),PrinciplesofComputer-IntegratedManufacturing. London: John wiley. pp. 128-132' ISBN 0-471-93450-X'

z. ..Kanban,o. Random House Dictionary. Dictionary.com. 2011. Retrieved April 12'2011'

3.ohno,Taiichi(June1988).ToyotaProductionSystem-beyondlarge-scaleproduction.

Productivity Press' p' 29' ISBN 0-9 15299 -14-3'

4. shing6, Shigeo (1939). A Study of the Toyota Production System from an lndustrial

EngineeringViewpoint.ProductivityPress.p.Z2S.ISBN0-9|5299.|7.8.

5. Hopp, Wallace J. (Spring 2004)."To Pull or Not to Pull: what Is the Question?"'Manufacturing

& Service Operations Management: 133'

(ee)

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September 2014 Paridnya - The MIBM Research Journal, Yol-2' Issue-l

6. Muckstadt, John; Tayur, sridhar (1995). "A comparison of alternative kanban control

mechanisms. I. Background and structural results". IIE Transactions 27 (2):140- 150'

doi: I 0. I 080 I 07 40817 9 5089367 26'

T.ohno,Taiichi(Junel988).ToyotaProductionSystem.beyondlarge-scaleproduction'

Productivity Press. pp' 25-28' ISBN 0-9 | 5299 -14-3'

8. Momentum, the midsize business center newsletter: Taking control of costs

g. Vernyi, Bruce; Vinas, Tonya (December 1,2005). ..Easing into E.Kanban',.

IndustryWeek. Retrieved April 12, 2008'

10.Cutler,ThomasR.(September2006)...ExaminingLeanManufacturingPromise''.

( SoftwareMag.com. Retrieved January 29'2013'

11. Intemational Manufacturing Strategies: Context, Content and Change By Christopher A'

Voss,KathrynL.Blackmon,PerLindbergISBN0.T923-806|.4

lz. visual rools: Collected practices and Cases By Productivity Press ISBN l-56327'331-4

13. B.Mahadevan. Operation Management,Theory And Practice'5'n Edition

14. K.Ashwathappa. production And Operation Management. Himalaya Publication'

15. S.N.Chary. Production And operation Manegement.3.o Edition'

aa.:.

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PARIDNYAThe MIfiM Res*sr*h J*urnal

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Volume 2, lssue 1, $eptember 2014

Table of Contents

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lsBN 978-81 -9227 46-1 -4

SBPIM National qS!&Igncg

THE PROCESS MODET FOR SHOP ILOOR MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

MEASURINC PROCESS EITECTIVENESS USING CPM/PERT IN

A TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Mr. Ro]ran l;"?*li*'"Rajgad Institute of Management Research Developmen! Dhankawadi' Pune

Contact No': 992161 3494 Email ld: rohandahivale@rediffmail'com

Mr. Sagar Kondekar

Student(MBA)RajgadInstituteofManagementResearchDeve|opment,Dhankawadi,PuneContact No,: 838001 5 427 Emai| |d.: [emailprotected]

ABSTRACT

crowingeffects of the globalization in variousbusiness environments affects the textile manufacturingindustry in terms of effective

and yet efficient overall performance. Therefore in planning, scheduling and controlling a production activities' proiect

managementtechniques (PERT and CPM) are used'

Researchers have shownhere some simple operationsResearch methods those can be used to achieve better performance' The

methodsofCPMandPERTwereusedtoanalyzeaproductio''lprocess'

The objective of the paper is to eradicate wasteful space and therebyfixed costs associated with them ' Further, secondary obiectives

aretoform amor.eeffective and logical layoutwith abetterflow of materials, more robustmanufacture by repositioningof functions

and machinery, and an increased focus on value added activities'

This paper defines the scope of shop floor management, to sketch a basic structure in terms rtf an overall process reference model as

well as to feature new and modified layout to improveits execution. At the end of the research, the result ls expected to help to

understandmoretheconceptof CpMandpfRrmethods inreducingtheproiectcompletiontime'

Keywords: CPM, PERI, Textile Industry, Material Flow, Layout' Process Cycle Time

INTRODUCTIONThe program (or project) Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), is a statistical tool, commonly used in project management'

pERT is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given proiect' First developed by the United states

Navy in the 1 950s, it is commonly used in conjunction with the critical path method (cPM)'

pERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task'

and to identifythe minimum time needed to complete the total project. During projectexecution, however, a real-life projectwill

never execute exactly as itwas planned due to uncertainty. lt can be ambiguity resulting from subjective estimates that are prone to

human errors or it can be variability arising from unexpected events or risks. The main reason that PERT may provide inaccurate

information about the project completion time is due to this scheclule uncertainty. This inaccuracy is large enough to render such

estimates as not helPful.

Critical path method (cpM) is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. lt is an important tool for effective project

management. The critical path method (cpM) is a project modelingtechnique developed in tlre late 1950s by Morgan R' Walker

of Du Pont and James E. Kel ley, J r. of Remi ngton Rand'

cpM is commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, aerospace and defense, software development'

research proiects, product development, engineering, and plant maintenance/ among others' Any project with interdependent

activities can apply this method of mathemattal analysis. Although the original cPM program and approach is no longer used' the

term is generally applied to any approach usecl to analyze a proiect network logic diagram'

The essentialtechnique for using cPM is to constructa modelof the projectthat includes the following:

, . A list of all activities required to complete the project

. The time (duration) that each activity will take to complete

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1-922746-1-4

' The dependencies between the activities

' Logical end points such as milestones or deliverable items

Using these values, cpM calculates the longest path of planned activities to logical end points or to the end of the proiect' and the

earliestand latestthateach activity can startand finish without makingthe proiect longer' This process determines which activities

are ,,critical,' (i.e., on the longest path) and which have "total float' (i'e'' can be delayed without making the project longer)' In

project management, a critical path is the sequence of project network activities which add up to the longest overall duration' This

determines the shortest time possibre to comprete the project. Any deray of an activity on the critical path directly impac* the

planned project completion date. A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths' An additional parallel path through the

networkwith thetotaldurations shorterthan the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path'

cpM analysistools allowa userto selecta logicalend point in a projectand quickly identify its longestseries of dependentactivities

(its longest path). These tools can display the critical path (and near critical path activities if desired) as a cascading waterfall that

flowsfrom the projectsstart (or currentstatus date)to the selected logicalend point'

rn manufacturing engineering, process layout is a design for the floor plan of a plantwhich aims to improve efficienry by arranging

equipment according to its function. The production line should ideally be designed to eliminate waste in material flows'

inventory handring and management. In process rayou! the work stations and machinery are not arranged according to a

particular production sequence. rnstead, there is an assembly of similar operations or similar machinery in each department (for

example, a drilldepartment, a paintdepartment' etc')

oBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1) To determine the activities involved in the manufacturing process'

2) To analyze the effect on the shop floor layout'

3)Toanalyzetheinf|uenceofCPMandPERTinthetexti|eindustry.

DATA & DATA ANATYSIS

Researchers have analyzed the shop floor layout and made significant changes in layout. The details of the textile manufacturing

sections with sub departments and number of machines are as follows'

Textite Section Details are as follows

1 ) Laser section (total 3)

. Laser machine 1to Laser machine 3

2l Straighteningsection

. straightening machine 1 (capacity up to Thickness='l 0 mm, Len$h:3000mm, width = 1 500 mm)

. StraighteningMachine 2 (capacity up to Thickness:10 mm, Len$h:1 5Oomm, width:1000 mm)

, . straighteningMachine3 (capacityuptoThickness=3 mm, Length=1000mm,width=500mm)

3) BendingSection

. Bendingmachine l (320Ton)

. Bending machine 2(32OTon)

. Bendingmachine3(150Ton)

. Bendingmachine4(150Ton)

. Bendingmachine5(1B0Ton)

4) PunchingSection

5) Tapping Section (total 2)

. Tapping machine 1& Tapping machine 2

224

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lsBN 978-81 -9227 46-1 -4

ffiWffiffi

ffiffi ffiffiffiffiffiffi

ffiffiffiffi ffiffiffi

.

ffi

ffiffi,_ffi

ffiffi'm"

ffiWWffi'ffi

SBPIM National Conference

6) SpotWelding(totat 3)

. SpotweldingltoSPotwelding3

7) MIC/MACWelding(total 1 2)

. Weldingstation No-01 toWeldingstation No-12

*ffiffiH

ffiffi,ffi,mm

iffi,ffi

W,wffiffi

Fisure 1: Layout before Research & Modification225

s

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ffi

Wffi.}

ffim

wlI

ffitr

i

ffi,1l

ffiffi,m

Wffi

ffiffi(

ffiffimFigure 2: Layout after Research & Modification

226

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-922745-1-4

Abbreviations used in laYouts areAbbreviations Meaning

SN Abbreviations Meaning SN

LT LaserTrumP1 S Straightening 10

LBS Laser BY-Stronic

1Aa

LP Loading Pallet 11

Laser BystarULP Un- LoadingPallet 12 LB

CrimpingSectionBM BendingMachine 13 CS

RMS RawMatStorage5 SW SpotWelding 14

SM ShearingMachine6 WS WeldingStations 15

P Purchasing'7 T Tapping 16

RMSR Raw Material Storage Racks

B PM PunchinsMachine 17

1B FR Fasteners Rack

9 C PARTS SR C PartStorage Rack

I flow in dePartment is { ftlgf

Critical Path Method (CPM)

Researchers have studied and analyzed the various process paths and the time required to process using cPM' After analyzing'

time required before and after research, the significanttime reduction in totar process time is the outputof the research'

BEFORE (before research)Laser -l- Straightening * Bending

used i layouts as follows

15 Min

15 Min

10 Min 15 Min

Laser* Straightening * Bending *50 Min

Tapping + Welding

10 Min 30 Min 20 Min 160 Min

Mateflat tlOW In (leparllllEllt rt 4J t-"*I

I rUaterial Flow DescriPtiont'I Lur", + Straightening + Bending * Powdercoating

I

I t"ru, * Straightening * Bending + Tapping + Welding * Powdercoatingt-|1as;; Straightening * Bending + Welding + Powdercoating

I Lur"t * Straightening * Powder coating

f straiehtenins * Laser * Bending + Tapping * Powdercoating

11"*t - *".htning t Punching * Bending + Tapping * Powdercoating

I r^+-l

Percentage

10%

"to%

2s%

os%

2s%

2s%

100%

227

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tsBN 978-81 -9227 46-1 -4

SB PIM National qS!&I9!99

Laser* Straightening * Bending + Welding

50 Min

25 Min

1O Min

25 Min

190 Min

30 Min

15 Min

175 Min

Laser *

Straightening * Laser l-

Straightening20 Min 10 Min

Bending + TaPPing

20 Min 185 Min 30 Min

5Mina

175 Min

Laser * Straightening * Punching *1000 Min

5 Min

AFTER (After research)

Laser * Straightening + Bending

15 Min

Laser* Straightening + Bending *50 Min

Bending + TaPPing

450 Min 50 Min

5 Min

10 Min 30 Min

5Min

10 Min

05 Min

Tapping + Welding

10 Min 30 Min

150 Min

5 Min

15 Min

05 Min

20 Min

200 Min

160 Min

Laser* Straightening * Bending + Welding

50 Min

228

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rsBN e78-81-g2zzl9t4SBPIM National Conferqngg

Laser * Straightening

Straightening * Laser * Bending *20 Min

10 Min

Tapping

190 Min 30 Min185 Min

150 Min

20 Min

Laser * Straightening * Punching * Bending + Tapping

450 Min

0 Min

50 Min

20 Min

200 Min

25 Min

1000 Min

25 Min

Process Time Calculations

Before (Before Research)

Material Flow DescriPtion1.25 Hrs

Laser * Straightening * Bending * Powder coating

Laser * Straightening * Bending + Tapping + Welding * Powder coating

Laser * Straightening * Bending + Welding * Powder coating

Laser * Straightening + Powder coating

Straightening * Laser * Bending + Tapping * Powder coating

32.7 HrsLaser + straightening * Punching * Bending + Tapping * Powder coating

Process Time calculations

After (After Research)

Material flow descriPtion

Laser * Straightening * Bending

Laser* Straightening f Bending + Tapping + Welding

Laser+ Straightening * Bending + Welding

Laser * Straightening

Straightening * Laser * Bending f Tapping

31.25 hoursLaser * Straightening + Punching + Bending + Tapping

229

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\SBN 97s-81-PlUa6 1-!SB PIM National CSlfelence

35

30

25

20

15

10

r Process Time (hours)

AFTER

& Process Time (hours)BEFORE

D

Craph 1 : Comparison of Total Process Time (Before & After)'

coNctusloN

Total

Process Time (hours) BEFORE Process Time (hours) AFTER

54.7

By discussing related scientific research, the formal definition for shop floor layout shop floor layout' The process model is

designed to preventabnormarities, to ensure highry reactive decision making and to faciritate continuous efficiency improvement

have been described more in detail. lt is importantto understand this approach as a consistentguideline ratherthan a catalogue of

tools to be implemented. The main benefit achieved due to efficient shop floor management is total process time required id

improved by 9.60%. Also Dedicated cell managementfor different sub departments is achieved'

FUTURE SCOPE FOR RESEARCH

1. Tostudyeffecton Productivity'

2. To study internal logistics process and flow'

TIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

1 . since this is a special activity, there was some restriction to share information'

2'BeforetryinganymethodortechniqueProperknow|edgeisrequiredotherwiseresources becomes Sreater cause ofconcern'

230

wastage of raw material & other

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lsBN 978-81 -9227 46-'t -4SBPIM National Conference

REFERENCES

1. Mikell p croover (2007).work systems: The Methods, Measurement& Managementotwork' Prentice Hall' lsBl'{ 978-

0-1 3-1 40650-6

2. Shigeo shingo (1985).,,A revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED system". Productivity Press' lsBN 0-915299-03-8

3. Fazar,W.,,,programEvaluationandReviewTechnique",TheAmericanStatistician,Vol.13,No'2,(April1959)'p'10'

4. Malcolm, D. C., J. H. Roseboom, C. E. Clark, w. Fazar Application of a Technique for Research and Development

ProgramEva|uationoPERATIoNsRESEARCHVol.T,No.5,September_october1959,pp.646.66

5. Kelley, James. Critical path planning and Scheduling: Mathematical Basis. Operations Research, Vol' 9' No' 3'

MaY-June, 1961.

6. Kelley, James; walker, Morgan. Critical-path planning and Scheduling. 1 959 Proceedings of the Eastern Joint computer

Conference.

7. Kelley,James;walker,Morgan.TheoriginsofCPM:APersonalHistory'PMNETwork3(2):7'22'

g. New crashina (2003). The project Management Question and Answer Book. American Management Association' p'

98.

9. Thayer, Harry (1996). Management of the Hanford Engineer works in world war ll, How the Corps, DuPont and the

Metallurgical Laboratory fast tracked the original plutonium works' ASCE Press, pp.66-67 '

10.samuel L. Baker, ph.D.,,Critical path Method (cpM)" University of south carolina, Health services Policy and

Management Courses

ll.Armstrong-Wright, MICE, A. T. Critical Path Method: lntroduction and Practice. Longman Croup LTD, London,1969,

PPsff.

12. Hendrickson, Chris; Tung, Au (2008). 11. Advanced scheduling Techniques. "Project Management for construction"'

cmu.edu (2.2 ed.) (Prentice Hall). lsBN o-13-731266-0. Retrieved 27 october 2011 '

13. Brooks, F.P (1975). The MythicalMan-Month. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley'

14. Hendrickson, C.; B.N. Janson (19s4). ,,A Common Network Flow Formulation for several civil Engineering Problems"'

Civil Engineering Systems. 41:195-203 '

15. D. Nightingale, June 2009, 'principles of Enterprise Systems.' Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on

EngineeringSystems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (MA). pp'15-1 7,

16. S.J. Spear, 1999, ,The Toyota Production System: An Example of Managing Complex Socialffechnical Systems' 5 Rules

for Designing, Operating, and lmproving Activities, Activity-Connections, and Flow-Paths', Ph'D' Thesis, Boston (MA)'

Harvard University craduate schoul uf Busirress Administration'

17. J.pwomack, D.T. Jone s,1gg4,,From Lean Production to Lean Enterprise" Harvard Business Review, Vol' 3, pp' 93-103'

1g. Womack,J.p,Jones, D.T. & Roos, D.,TheMachineThatChangedtheWorld,vol.2. NewYork: Simon &Schuster,2007'

1g. Kouri, 1., Kilpailukykyinen tuotannonohjaus menestyksen perustana, Presentation, Helsinki, Tampere University of

TechnologY, 9.2.2OO9.

20. Hussey, W, Sanmina-SCl Today, San Jose, Sanmina-SCl, 2008'

21. Abdi, M.R. and Labib, A.W., 2003, A design strategy {or reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) using analytical

hierarchical process (AHP): a case study. lnternationalJournal of Production Research,4l (10), 2273-2299'

22. Agarwal,A. and Sarkis, t.,1gg},A review and analysis of comparative performance studies on functional and cellular

manufacturing layouts. Computers ind' Engng, 34(1),77 -89 '

23. Albayrakoglu, M.M., 1gg6, Justification of new manufacturing technology: A strategical approach using the Analytical

231

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Hierarchy process. production and InventoryManagementJournal, FirstQuarter, 71-76'

24. Arbel,A. and seidmann, A.,lgg4,performance evaluation of flexible manufacturing systems' IEEE Transactions on

Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMG14(4)' 606-617.'

25. Barbarosogru, c. and yazgac, T., 1gg7,An apprication of the Anarytic Hierarchy process to the supplier selection

problem. Production and InventoryManagementJournal' FirstQuarter' 14'21' ^hiac

26. Belton, V. and Cear, T., 1 983, on a short-coming of Saaty.s method of ana|ytic hierarchies.

27 . Omega, 1 1 (3), 228-230'

(

r

232

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University of Pune

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth's

RAJGAD INSTITUTE, OF MANAGE,ME,NT

RESEARCH & DEVE,LOPMENTO PUNE

In association with

Savitribai Phule Pune University(Under Quality Improvement Programme)

Kashvt,-2016

NATIONAL CONFERENCE

"Shifting Gears: Prospering in changing face of Indiathrough Make in India CamPaigtt"

3np AND Arn MnncH,2016,

ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

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CONTENTS

Sr.No.

Name Of Paper Author Pg.No.

A Study: Work Life Balance For WorkingCouoles

Uma Prashant Bendre I

2. "An Empirical Study of Green HR PracticesOf Certain Automobile Orsanizations OfPCMC"

Roshna JaidMr. Sagar Jarande

7

al ooA Study of Effectiveness And ConflictsManagement With Reference To DistributionChannel of LED Manufacturing Company InPUNE Resion"

Rohan Dahivale,Mr. Shrikant Bhoi

15

4. A Study On Work-Life Balance AmongMarried Women Employees: With ReferenceTo Pune City

Miss. KomalJ. GavhaneDr. D. ts. Bharati

21

5. "A Study On Customer's Awareness OnGreen Banking Initiatives ln Selected PublicAnd Private Sector Banks With SpecialReference To Pune Citv"

Miss. Rohini Gujar,Roshna Jaid

30

6. A Study of Demand Forecasting & CapacityPlannins

Rohan P. Dahivale,Vaibhav JadhavDr. Vikas Inamdar

36

.7 Prospering In Changing Face of IndiaThrough Making Make In India Campaign ASuccess- Roadmaps, Initiatives AndChallenges For Entrepreneurial Aspirations

Ahuti Siddharth Mishra 46

8. "Implementation of RFID Based PatientMonitoring System Using Cloud Computins."

Rohan Dahivale,Shantanu Panhale

33

9. Introduction To Performance Prism: A ToolOf Performance Measurement System

Babasaheb R. Jadhav.Dr. D. B. Bharati

63

10. "Energy Management And Energy Audit ofAn Education CamDus"

Mr. Aniket More,Miss. Komal R. Pawar

/3

ll "Review of Cloud Based Home AutomationUsins Android."

Mr. Amit Patil,Mr. Navin Kumar

82

12. "Location Based Services lJsing Smart CityDevelopment"

Amit Dattatray Pasalkar,Rohan Dahivale,Dr. E. B. Khedkar

87

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13. Financial Behavioral Approach OfIndividuals Towards Health Insurance InKalyan-Dombivli Municipal CorporationRegion:-ACaseStudy.

Saniav Vishvanath Rane 93

t4. A Study On India As A 'GlobalManufacturins Hub'

Dr. Mayanka Sharma,Karthik V.

100

15. "Make In India: Shipping Industry Gains" Mr. Shubhatish Marathe"Dr. (Mrs.) ShubhadaMarathe

109

t6. Skill India And Make In India: Two Sides OfOne Coin !

Prof. Prashant G.Kalwade,(Dr.) D.B.Bharati

115

17. Fostering The Economic GroMh Through"Make In India"Intiative

Dr. D.B. Bharati,Jayasri Murali Ivensar

r2l

18. Make In India - Manufacturins Sector AReview

Hema Gwalani,Dr. D.B. Bharati

t27

19. New Trends Of Performance Appraisal InAutomobile Sector At Bhosri Pune

Prof.Vikrant Soman t34

20. An Analytical Study of PrInsurance Companies Operat

vate sector Lifens in India

Prof. Shekhar S.ChavhanDr. Pimnale Vandana

139

2l "PERM & CPM: Implementation inProduction Process"

Prof. Rohan Dahivale.Mr. Sourabh Dhame

r46

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'Kashvi" - 2016 ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

ooAn Empirical Study of Green HR Practices of certainAutomobile Organizations of PCMC"

Prof. Rosh na Jaid, Ass istant Professor, roshn a.-i a i d@ em a i Lcom

Mr. Sagar Jarande, Student, sagarjarande45 @ gmai l.com

Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Dhankawadi Pune 43.

Abstract:Green Human Resource management is a new emerging concept in today's scenario. We are

entering a green economy and so the impact of our daily activities on environment and ourdesire to go green has expanded from just individuals to organizations. Organizations todaybelieve that employees must be inspired, empowered and environmentally aware of greening

in order to carry out green management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to present

literature review of Green HR practice and repoft the results of a survey on Green HRpractices in certain automobile organizations in India.

Structured questionnaire designed for capturing data on sections of organizations using green

HR practices in automobile organization in PCMC. Questionnaire Pilot - tested based on

feedback of practicing HR professionals & finalized questionnaire sent to HR. Most ofAutomobile industries in PCMC Pune achieved greatest benefit to implementation of Green

HR practices. They said Green HR practices improved employee morale & greatest barrier tocost of implementation.

This study is important forthe current scenario of Organizations in 2l't Century eco friendlyenvironment. It gives the new insight for other organization implementation of Green HRpractices.

Keywords: Green HR, Green Organization, Green Human Resource Management.

Introduction:Green HRM:Green HRM has got different meaning for different people, Ashok Ramachandran, DirectorHR Vodafone Essar Ltd defines green HR as using every employee touch point to espouse

sustainable practices and raise employee level of awareness, Anjana Nath Regional Head HR,Fortis healthcare ltd defines Green HR as environment- friendly HR initiatives leading tobetter efficiencies, lesser cost and heightened employee engagement levels.

It involves undertaking environment friendly initiatives resulting in greater efficiency, lowercosts, and better employee engagement and retention which in turn help organization toreduce carbon footprints by the means ofo Electronic filling. Car sharing

Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Developmen! Pune -43 Page 7

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"Kashvi" -2016 ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

o Job sharing

o Teleconferencins

. Online trainingo Flexible working hours

. Tele- commuting

Green HRM is the use of HRM policies to promote the sustainable use of resources withinorganizations and, more generally promotes the causes of environment sustainability. Thispaper focuses on role that HR processes play in translating green policy into practice. Thispaper also examines the nature and extent of green HR initiatives undertaken by differentautomobile companies across Pune region.

About Pune & PCMC Industrial GroMh:Pune is one of the premier industrial centers of Maharashtra. It is home to one of the world'sthree largest two-wheeler manufacturers, Bajaj Auto. Other global automobile names likeTelco, Mercedes Benz and Bajaj Tempo also have huge manufacturing facilities here. Apartfrom the auto giants, a large number of engineering, electronic and electrical industries have

set up base in the large, medium and small scale sectors. The industrial township of PimpriChinchwad, adjacent to the main city, is dotted with over 4,000 manufacturing units. Thisvast and well established industrial base has imbibed the city with a 'professional' ethos and

work culture Pimpri-Chinchwad and surrounding area is a major industrial hub and hosts one

of the biggest industrial zones not only in India but in the entire Asia. The city is a home tothe Indian operations of majorautomobile companies and several other industries. There are

thousands of engineering units of various sizes including those of the major auto

manufacturers, and as such, this area is often referred to as the'Detroit of East'.

Objectives of Study:l. To examine the status & extent to which certain automobile orsanizations in PCMC

have adopted green HR practices.

2. To empirically investigate perception of HR professionals of the drivers & barrierstowards implementation of Green HR for positive outcome.

3. To present the results of empirical analysis of certain organizations.

Research Methodology:Empirical Analysis Research method used for the research. Structured questionnaireprepared for collecting data, questionnaire pre tested, modified and used as a data source.

Questionnaire carrying four parts:

1. Profile of Organizations

2. Application of Green HR practices

3. Perception of barriers to implementation of Green HR practices

Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Developmenf Pune -43 Page 8

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"Kashvi" - 20t6 ISBN No. 978-93-5 158-591-6

4. Perception of Drivers to implementation of Green HR practices

As we are not aware how many organizations / companies from PCM implemented Green

HR practices, Total questionnaire circulated to 100 companies & 57 companies reverted backto questionnaire. Questionnaire sent through e-mail to HR professionals of these

organizations. Asked respondent to complete and revert questionnaire. All the companies HRprofessionals reverted their feedback. Most of the study done on basis of literature review &took reference of survey conducted y SHRM on Green Workplace survey. Summary of thesample characteristics presented in Table formats from Table No I to Table no VlI.

Hypothesis:H6' There is No significance difference exists between the perceived benefits and barriers ofadopting Green HR practices on the basis of Size of Company.

H": There is significant difference exist between the perceived benefits and barriers ofadopting Green HR practices on the basis of Size of Company.

Results & Analysis: ComprehensiveThble: Table 1: Profile of OrganizationsFrequency Percentage

No of Employees

l-100 9 15.79

l0l-1000 2l 36.84

l 00 1-5000 27 47.37

Total 57 100.00

Interpretation: Above table represents profile of organizations, out of 57 companies 27

having more than thousand employees in their organization. Below those 2l companies tohave 100 to 1000 employs in the organizations.

Table 2: Profile of the respondents

Frequency Percentage

Position

HW Personnel- Vice President / director 27 47.3684211

HR/ Personnel- Training manager 2l 36.8421053

other 9 15.7894737

f,/ 100

Age<30 ll t9.298245630-35 t6 28.070r754

35-40 l3 22.8070175>40 t7 29.8245614

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3l r00EducationBachelor Desree l8 3r.s789474Master Desree 39 68.4210526

J/ 100

Working Experience< l0 years 12 21.0526316

I l-15 Years 34 s9.6491228> 15 years ll 19.2982456

)t 100

Interpretation: Above table is likely to show the respondents profile. Respondents were HRprofessionals from different organizations. Approximately 30%o respondents were of 40&above age. Most of them had a Master degree certificate & about 60Yowere having 11-15

years of experience in HR / work experience.

Table 3: Significant differences based on Company Size on Demonstration of GreenPractices

Interpretation:Above table interpret the demonstration of green practices in small, medium & largeorganizations - ANOVA test used for comparing the means of respondents on three stated

aspects. Multiple comparison analysis of mean differences to be evaluated help of Tukey'stest - it showed that there is no much difference between large & medium size oforganizations, but there is difference between small & large size companies. Large size

companies are more committed towards green practices that small sized.

Table No.3Demonstration of Green

HR PracticesSmall

(Mean)Medium(Mean)

Large( Mean)

FValue

SignificantDifference( Turkey's)

Green Efforts included innewsletter of organization 2.88 3.71 3.88 t34.6They are part of organizations

stated goals 2.88 3.76 AaaA.LL 57.87

It is included in organizations

mission / Vision 3.1 l 4.04 4.25 84.20

Small, medium<

large

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Table 4 : Mean Ratings to Potential Drivers to Green HR Practices

Potential Drivers Mean S.D Ranking

Contribution to Society 4.35 1.67 I

Environmental Consideration 4.05 t.57 3

Econom ic Considerations 3.7 l.8l 4

Health & Safety Considerations 4.29 | 1^l.J+ 2

Public Relations Strategy J.J) 1.12 6

Competitive Advantage 3.19 1.34 7

Market Share Improvement 3.52 t.54 5

Note : The Factors were measured on a five point scale, with l: S>D and 5: S.A

Interpretation:Above table shows mean ratings of the Potential drivers for green HR practices. Driver'sperceptions were rated on five point scale. Based on responses "Contribution to Society" had

highest mean score 4.35 than the others. One can say that the Contribution to society is the

main driver to green HR practices.

Interpretation:Above table shows Potential Barriers for implementation of Green HR practices, HR fromLarge sized organizations perceived that the cost of implementation & cost of maintenance

are the major barriers for implementation of green HR practices.

Table 5 : Mean Ratings of Potential Barriers to Implementation of Green HR Practices

Potential Barriers Mean S.D Ranking

Cost of Implementing Programme 3.17 1.67 I

Cost of Maintaining Program 3.05 1.57 2

Lack of Support by Management 2.87 t.37 4

Lack of Support by Employees 2.91 1.32 5

Note : The Factors were measured on a five point scale, with l: S>D and 5: S.A

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Table 6 : Significant Differences Based on Company Size in Positive Outcomes ofGreen HR Practice

Small

(Mean)

Medium(Mean)

Large(Mean)

F

Value

Sig

Dif(Turkey's)Positive OutcomesImproving Employee

Morale 2.68 4.46 4.48 61.87

Stronger Public Image 2.47 2.98 5 186.78

Increased Consumer/

Customer Confidence 2.38 2.47 4.87

Small, Large <

MediumIncreased Employee

Loyalty 1.8 1.85 3.84 24.64 Large < MediumIncreased Brand

Recognition 1.46 2.24 3.48 33.86

Small, Large <

MediumGained CompetitiveAdvantage 1.5 1.68 2.98 21.04

Increased WorkforceProductivity t.21 1.68 3.2r 30.64

Increased Employee

Retention 1.7 2.44 3.12 5.18

"Kashvi" - 2016 ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

Interpretation:Above table shows that the implementation of green HR practices in large, medium & smallsize organizations perceived that, the Positive outcome for the company building strongerpublic image in market with improving employee morale of the organizations.

Table 7 : Significant Differences according to Company Size

Small(Mean)

Medium(Mean)

Large(Mean)

F Value Sig Diff(Turkey's)

DRIVERScontribution to Society r.6 4.45 4.96 187.64

Environmental Considerations 2.42 2.8s 4.87 64.34

Economic Considerations r.78 2.44 4.58 165.53 Small, Large<Medium

Health & SafetyConsiderations

t.2l r.96 3.68 45.15 Small, Large<Medium

Public relations strategy 2.4s 2.74 2.87 6.71 Large < MediumCompetitive Advantage t.63 2.84 2.45 I 1.18 Small, Large

<Medium

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BARRIERSCost of ImplementingProsramme

3.4 4.31 4.68 38.45 MedSmal

um)Large,

Cost of Maintainins Prosram 2.64 4.65 4.87 347.43 MedSmal

um>Large,

Lack of Support byManasem*nt

2.45 2.84 4.31 287.73 MedSmal

um>Large,

Lack ofSupport byEmployees

2.31 2.45 3.67 26.58 Medium>Small

"Kashvi" - 2016 ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

Interpretations: Above table depicts the size of company matters a lot in a perception ofdrivers and barriers for implementation of green HR practices. The interpretation shows thatthere is a significant difference of opinion according to size of the company on differentaspects like contribution to society, Environmental Considerations, Health & SafetyConsiderations. There is no significance difference between large & medium but small size

companies shows greater difference.

Findings & Conclusions:This paper presented survey & result of the ceftain automobile organizations from PCMCarea regarding Status of Green HR practices in their companies. Study is based on three mainobjectives framed by the researcher.

From analysis & interpretation of the certain companies, observed that the efforls are made bythe organizations for green HR practices through Newsletters & publications of company.Some are in process / planning to adopt Green HR practices.

Study also identified the drivers & barriers for the implementation of Green HR practices.Based on empirical result researcher found that the major driver of Green HR practices isContribution to Society, Health & Safety Considerations followed by Environmental &Economic considerations. Barriers to perceive green HR practices in organizations - first &foremost important "cost of implementation", " cost of maintaining" for smooth adoption ofGreen HR practices.

For the same one need create proper awareness among employees for adopting suchprograms. The result showed that there is significant difference between large & small size ofcompanies' perception on the benefits/ positive outcome & barriers of implementation ofgreen HR practices. From above all interpretation, findings researcher understood that there isdifference in positive outcome like employee morale increases, public image building to.Lastly different size of the company may have different benefit & hurdles of implementingGreen HR practices effectively & efficiently.Further researcher can take in depth analysis of companies on basis of Revenue generated oron basis of working type of organizations.

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References:. Daily, B. F. and Huang, S. (2001). Achieving sustainability through attention to human

resource factors in environmental management. International Journal of Operations &Productio Management, 2l (12), 1 539-1 552

o Florida R., and Davison, D. (2001). Gaining from green management: Environmentalmanagement systems inside and outside the factory. California Management Review,43(3),64.

o Lee, K. H. and Ball, R. (2003). Achieving Sustainable Corporate Competitiveness:Strategic Link between Top Management's (Green) Commitment and CorporateEnvironmental Strategy . Gr e ene r Mana ge m e nt Int e rnat i onal,(4 4), 8 9- I 04.

. Daily, B.F. and Huang, S. (2001)," Achieving sustainability through attention to humanresource factors in environmental management", "Intemational journal of Operations andProduction Management", Y ol.2l No. 12, pp.1539-52.

. Florida,R. (1996)," Lean and Green: the move to environmentally consciousmanufacturing" California Management Review, Vol.39 No.1, pp 80-105.

. Govindarajulu, N. and Daily, B.F. (2004), "Motivating employees for environmentalimprovement", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 104 No. 4, pp.364-72.

r Harris, L.C. and Crane, A. (2002), "The greening of organizational culture: management

views on the depth, degree and diffusion change", Journal of Organizational Change

Management, Vol. l5 No. 3,pp.214-34.r Strachan,P. (1996), "achieving environmental excellence through effective teamwork",

Team Performance Management: An Intemational Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp.25-9.. Wehrmeyer, W. (1996), "Green policies can help to bear fruit", People Management,

Vol.2, pp. 38-40.. Beard, C. & Rees, S, (2000), " Green terms and the management of environmental change

in UK country counsil".o Rothenberg, S. (2003), "Knowledge content and worker participation in environmental

management at NUMMI",Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 40 No. 7, pp. 1783-802.

E-References:o www.coeccc.net/green

. http ://www.pcm cindia. gov. inllocation_info.phpo www.pooplemanagement.co.uk/pm/articles/gogreentocombatclimatechange.ht. http ://www.sedsi.ors/hi stor),/20 1 0/proceed ines/prol/p0909

t *****r<

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"A Study of Effectiveness and Conflicts Management withReference to Distribution Channel of LED Manufacturing

Company in PUNE Region"

Mr. Rohan Dahivale (Assistant Professor), [emailprotected] ,9921613494

Mr. Shrikant Bhoj (Entrepreneur, All-nutrition-food), [emailprotected] ,9890096147Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune '

AbstractThe study is to understand to Study of Effectiveness and Conflicts Management withReference to Distribution Channel of LED Manufacturing Company for Pune region byconducting the survey.

LED market is growing now a day, for this its distribution and promotion is the most crucialpart in increasing the market share of the company.The entire research has been carried out in different phases for fulfilling the objectives,sample size of 120 responders have been analyzed. The research also helps in identifyingthe segment strategies, target market selection strategies, positioning strategies and pricingstrategies.

Keywords: [Distribution channel, conflict management, LED productJ

rl TNTRODUCTTONChannel conflict occurs when manufacturers (brands) disinter mediate their channelpartners, such as distributors, retailers, dealers, and sales representatives, by selling theirproducts directly to consumers through general marketing methods and/or over the Internet.Some manufacturers want to capture online markets for their brands but do not want tocreate conflicts with their other distribution channels. The Census Bureau of the U.S.Department of Commerce repofted that online sales in 2005 grew 24.6 percent over 2004 toreach US$86.3 billion.ltl By co.parison, total retail sales in 2005 grew 7.2 percent from2004.tllThese numbers made the online marketplace attractive to manufacturers, but raised

the question of how to participate without harming existing channel relationships.According to Forrester Research and Garlner from 2007, despite the rapid groMh of onlinecommerce, an estimated 90 percent of manufacturers did not sell their products online. Ofthese, 66 percent identified channel conflict as their single biggest issue. However, resultsfrom a survey show that click-and-mortar businesses have an 80%o greater chance ofsustaining a business model during a three-year period than those operating just in one ofthe two channels.

E-commerce is the most popular second distribution channel because of its low overhead

expenses and communication costs. This advantage is also a disadvantage, since consumers

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can also communicate less expensively and more easily with one another in the onlinemarketplace. Therefore, price and product differentiation is more challenging in onlinemarkets.[2]

Channel conflict can also occur when there has been over production. This results in asurplus of products. Newer versions of products, changes in trends, insolvency ofwholesalers and retailers and the distribution of damaged goods also affect channel conflict.In this connection, a company's stock clearance strategy is important.

To avoid a channel conflict in a click-and-mortar business, it is necessary to ensure thatboth traditional and online channels are fully integrated. This reduces possible confusion

with customers while providing the business benefits of a dual .llunn.1.t3Jt+JIsJt6J

Manufacturers today sell their products through a broad array of channels. Since mostmanufacturers sell through several channels simultaneously, channels sometimes findthemselves competing to reach the same set of customers. When this happens, channel

conflict is virtually guaranteed. In turn, such conflict almost invariably finds its way back to

the manufacturer.

Channel conflict comes in many forms. Some are mild, merely the necessary friction of a

competitive business environment. Some are actually positive for the manufacturer, forcingout-of-date or uneconomic players to adapt or decline. Other conflicts, however, can

undermine the manufacturer's business model. Such high-risk conflicts generally occurwhen one channel targets customer segments already served by an existing channel. Thisleads to such a deterioration of channel economics that the threatened channel eitherretaliates against the manufacturer or simply stops selling its product. The result is

disintermediation. in which the manufacturer suffers.

2l OBJECTTVES OF THE STUDYl. To Study the effectiveness of distribution of LED Manufacturing Company.2. To analyze conflicts between the distribution channel and LED Manufacturing

Company.3. To understand the satisfaction of distributors of LED Manufacturing Company.4. To_provide suggestions order to minimize the channel conflicts.

3j swoT ANALYSTS

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSESo New, innovative technology.. Offers consumers positive ROI, over time.. Technologystillprogressing.. Ability to constantly innovate.. Wide range of quality products & service. High efficiency of Lights

. Price Pressure

. Low market share

. Many competitors with lower prices

. Less Awareness, Not very well-known

r Distribution Networka

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OPPORTUNITIES THREATS. Ability to sustain in the Market &

commitment.o Government regulations for energy

efficiency.o Market Expansion.o Demand of LED Lights.. Universal "Green Push"

. Large well-established competitors.o Market Expansion.o Demand of LED Lishts

4I RLSEARCH DESIGNSr.No.

Parameter Description

I Type ofresearch Descriptive Research2 Nature of Research Oualitative & Ouantitative3 Research Instrument Structured Ouestionnaire4 Survev period 2l Mav to 21 Julv 20156 Method of data collection Sample Survey Method7 Population Retailers, Wholesalers & Distributors of Lighting

Product in Pune Citv9 Sampline Method Non Probabilitv Convenience Samolin s10 Primarv sources Questionnaire. observation. interview and field surveyll Secondarv sources Book, Journal, Ar-ticles, Magazinest2 Measurable scale used Nominal. Ordinal. Interval scale.

13 Question Type Close ended, Multiple Responses, Ranking Scale

t4 Ratins Scale Likert Scale

t7 Total Responders 120

5I DATA INTERPRETATION NAD ANALYSIS

Qf ) What is your type of Business?

Q. 2) Duration of Channel partnership with LED manufacturer:

Franchisees Distributors Retailers Total

Responders t2 3 105 120

Percentage (7") l0 2.5 87.5 r00%

Less than I Year I to 2 Years More than2 Years Total

Responders 65 34 2l 120

Percentage 54.16 28.33 17.5 100 %

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DATA ANALYSTS (Q.3 - Q.e):Likert Scale: I to 5 is used which indicates:

Scale I to 5Delighted

(1)More thansatisfied (2)

Satisfied(3)

Less thansatisfied (4)

Disgusted(s)

Parameter I ) 3 4 f, Mean Median Mode SD

Mode of delivery 35 8 I 3 1.8 2 2 o.773

Mode of Payment 5l 39 l6 9 5 1.98 2 I 1.110

Cost of Products t4 72 t2 l5 3.11 aJ 3 o.967

Numbers of assortment 40 )z 25 20 aJ 2.28 2 1.163

Lead time 46 4l 29 3 I 1.93 2 0.891

Execution of promo-offers t2 l5 ZJ 52 18 3.40 4 4 L.179

Display of products 35 73 8 I 3 L.86 2 2 o.773

Likert Scale: I :Always, 2 : Sometimes, 3 :Never Q. 10 to t5)

Parameter I ) 3 Mean Median Mode SD

Understanding of channel's exactrequirements

46 63 l1 L.70 2 2 o.624

Two-way effective verticalcommunication

55 47 l8 1..69 2 I o.71.6

Issues handling regarding complaintsabout product

39 28 53 2.LI 2 aJ o.867

Issues handling regarding complaintsabout payments

22 anJI 61 2.32 3 3 o.765

Emergency issues handling aboutescalated customer complaints

27 26 67 2.33 3 3 0.819

Company's responsiveness duringimplementation of commitments

l8 47 55 2.30 21f o.71.6

Likert Scale: I : Highly frequent, 2 : Less Frequent, 3 : Rarely Occur (Q. 16 to 2l)

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Question I 2 3 Mean Median Mode SD

After sales service issue 22 38 60 2.31 3 3 0.763

Unscheduled & delav in deliverv 25 42 53 z.zJ 2 aJ 0.771

Product avalibility after customer order 55 40 25 1.7 5 2 I 0.777

Opening new Distributor for same area 60 40 20 1.66 2 0.745

Promoptional activities by company 83 30 1.36 I 0.590

Initiative to dissolve conflicts 27 72 2l 1.95 2 2 0.630

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6l FTNDTNGS

l. LED Manufacturing Company is making and Covering more and more market to reach

to the end user or consumers.

2. Distributor and retailers are very much happy with delivery of the products and they feel

more reliable with the distribution ship of LED Manufacturing Company.3. There are various brands available in the market in comparing with those brand retailers

and distributors says that the cost of the product is appropriate with the quality of the

product.

4. There are various brands available in the market in comparing with those brand retailersand distributors says that the cost of the product is appropriate with th.e quality of theproduct.

5. The lead time if most important in every supply chain. If there is problem in the lead

time, then this will affects on product. In our supply chain we have great lead time withretailers and d istributors.

6. Today's sales of product are based on the promo offers. Customers are attracted to the

form offers and discount offers. LED Manufacturing Company are not focusing on the

promo offers. They are maintaining the higher class products for the customers.

7. Especially the issues on the emergency basis are handled by the high priority. Retailersand franchises are happy with the customer supports provided to the customer.

7l SUGGESTTONSl. LED Manufacturing Company has most of the time fails to responsiveness during

implementation of commitments.

2. In our survey the researcher found that after sales service issues less. This shows thequality of the product.

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3. Very little time it happens that unscheduled & delay in delivery. The retailers and

franchises say that distribution channel taking care of this issue and they try to improvethe service.

4. LED Manufacturing Company has taken initiative in the solve the conflicts but retailersand franchises said sometimes they failed to solve the conflicts. LED ManufacturingCompany has to concentrate on this issue.

5. The quality of LED Manufacturing Company products is good, but on the other hand

prices are high. In India price is the main factor while buying products, so companyshould update the price with market change.

u The promotion of LED Manufacturing Company lights is not so effective, so companyshould also focus in this part.

8l BTBLTOGRAPHYo U.S. Dept of Commerce 2004 Reporto Marmorstein, H., Rossomme, J., Sarel, D., (2003) "Unleashing the power of yield

management in the internet era", California Management Review, vol. 45, No 3, pp 1-22

o Simons, L.P.A., Bouwman, H., (2006) "Designing a marketing channel mix", InternationalJournal of Information Technology and Management, vol. 5, No 4, pp 229-248 Kaplan, S.,

Sawnhey, M., (2000) "E-Hubs: the new B2B marketplaces", Harvard Business

r Markides, C., D. Charitou, C., (2004) "Competing with dual business models: Acontingency approach", Academy of Management Executive, vol.18, No3, pp 22-36

. Kaplan, S., Sawnhey, M., (2000) "E-Hubs: the new B2B marketplaces", Harvard Business

Review, May-June, pp. 97 -103

. Chiang, W.K., Chhajed, D., Hess, J.D., (2002) "Direct Marketing, Indirect Profits: AStrategic Analysis of Dual-Channel Supply-Chain Design", Management Science, vol 00,

No. 00. pp. l-20. A.Churchill, G., & down, J. a. (2007). marketing research methodological foundation (Ninth

ed.). Thomson south western.. da), A. k. marketimg reasearch. John wiley and sons plt Ltd.o E.Green, P., s.Tull, D., & albaum, G. reasearch for marketing decision (fifth ed.). Ashok K

Ghosh.

o G.C.Beri. marketing reasearch (Fourth ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill education.o Leon.G.Schiffman, kanak, L. L., & Ramesh kumar, s. p. consumer behaviour (Third ed.).

Dorling kindersley pvt ltd.. M.S.Raju, & Dominique, x. (2009). consumer behaviour,concept and application. new

delhi: vikas publishing house.

o Ramaswami, V. (2007). Marketing Management (Third ed.). Rajiv Beri.. Russell.S.Winer. (2008). maerketing management (Third ed.). Derling kindersly.

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A study on Work-Life Balance among Married WomenEmployees: with reference to Pune city

Miss. Komal J. Gavhane (Student) Dr. D. B. Bharati (Director)

Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Development, Pune 43

Email id: [emailprotected] & [emailprotected]

Phone No:. 9766451250,

Abstract:Family-work conflict (FWC) and work-family conflict (WFC) are more likely to exertnegative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and greaterinternal conflict within the family. This research paper has identified several variables thatinfluence the level of WFC and FWC. Variables such as the size of family, the age ofchildren, the work hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC andFWC. However, these variables have been conceptualized as antecedents of WFC andFWC; it is also imporlant to consider the consequences these variables have onpsychological distress and wellbeing of the working women. The sample size selected forthe research paper is of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50years. WFC and FWC Scale were administered to measure WFC and FWC of workingwomen. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. CarlPearson's Correlation was used to find the relationship between the different variables. Thefindings of the study emphasized the need to formulate guidelines for the management ofWFCs at organizational level as it is related to job satisfaction and performance of theemployees.

Keywords : M orr ie d, w o me n, w or k- I ife b a I u n c e, e mp I oy e d

INTRODUCTIONIndian families are undergoing rapid changes due to the increased pace of urbanization and

modemization. Indian women belonging to all classes have entered into paid occupations.At the present time, Indian women's exposure to educational opportunities is substantiallyhigher than it was some decades ago, especially in the urban setting. This has opened new

vistas, increased awareness and raised aspirations of personal growth. This, along witheconomic pressure, has been instrumental in influencing women's decision to enter the workforce. Most studies of employed married women in India have reported economic need as

being the primary reason given for working.Women's employment outside the home generally has a positive rather than negative effecton marriage. Campbell et al studied the effects of family life on women's job performanbe

and work attitudes. The result revealed that women with children were significantly lowerin occupational commitment relative to women without children; contrary to expectation,women with younger children outperformed women with older children. Murkowski

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d.

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studied psychosocial determinants of stress and well-being among working women. The

significance of the work-related stressors was evidently greater than that of the stressors

associated with the family function, although the relationship between family functioning,stress and well-being was also significant.

Work-life balanceAn increasing number of articles have promoted the importance of work-life balance. Thishighlights the current concem within society and organizations about the impact of multipleroles on the health and well-being of professional women and its implications regardingwork and family performance, and women's role in society. The following variablesinfluencing the experience of work-life balance were identified while reviewing the

intemational literature.

a. The multiple roles performed by womenb. Role strain experienced because of multiple roles, i.e., role conflict and role overloadc. Organization culture and work dynamics: Organizational values supporling work-life

balance have positive work and personal well-being consequences

Personal resources and social support: Several studies confirmed the positiverelationsh ip between personal ities, emotional support and wel l-bein g

Career orientation and career stage in which women careers need to be viewed in the

context of their life course and time lines

f. Coping and coping strategies: Women use both emotional and problem-focused copingstrategies to deal with role conflict.

Work-family conflict and family-work conflictWork-life balance is the maintenance of a balance between responsibilities at work and at

home. Work and family have increasingly become antagonist spheres, equally greedy ofenergy and time and responsible for work-family conflict (WFC). These conflicts are

intensified by the "cultural contradictions of motherhood", as women are increasinglyencouraged to seek self-fulfillment in demanding careers; they also face intensifiedpressures to sacrifice themselves for their children by providing "intensive parenting",highly involved childrearing and development. Additional problems faced by employedwomen are those associated with finding adequate, affordable access to child and elderlycare.

WFC has been defined as a type of inter-role conflict wherein some responsibilities fromthe work and family domains are not compatible and have a negative influence on an

employee's work situation. Its theoretical background is a scarcity hypothesis whichdescribes those individuals in certain, limited amount of energy. These roles tend to drainthem and cause stress or inter-role conflict. Results of previous research indicate that WFCis related to a number of negative job attitudes and consequences including lower overalljob satisfaction and greater propensity to leave a position.

Family-work conflict (FWC) is also a type of inter-role conflict in which family and work

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exert its negative influences in the home domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and

greater intemal conflict within the family unit. However, FWC is related to attitudes about

the job or workplace. Both WFC and FWC basically result from an individual trying tomeet an overabundance of conflictine demands from the different domains in which womenare operating.

LITERATURE REVIEW:WORK STRESS: ITS RELATION WITH WFC AND FWCWork stress is usually conceptualized as work-role conflict, work-role overload, and work-role ambiguity. Each has the potential to affect WFC. With respect to work-role conflict, the

more conflict among work roles, the greater the chances that stress will spill over and cause

negative behaviors that interfere with fulfilling family roles. Role overload is the result ofhaving too many things to do in a given time period. As time is constrained by having toomany tasks to accomplish at work, the employee may need to use time allocated to thefamily role which could cause WFC. Work-role ambiguity occurs when workers are unsure

of what is expected of them in a work role. As uncertainty concerning work roles increase,

employees use more mental energy to decipher it. This requirement may drain mental

energy and attention needed for their family roles. Carlson and Kacmar found that roleoverload and role conflict were predictors of WFC, yet did not find significant results forrole ambiguity.Kandel et al. studied the nature of specific strains and stresses among married women in

their marital, occupational and house work roles. They found that strains and stresses are

lower in family roles than in occupational and household roles among the married women.These have more severe consequences for the psychological well-being of women than

occupational strains and stresses. Strains predicted distress through role-specific stress, withstrains deriving from.contribution of role-specific stress. Chassin et al. found three types ofconflicts in their study research on a sample of 83 dual worker couples with pre-schoolchildren. These are: (l) conflicts between demands of multiple roles, (2) conflict between

role expectations of self and spouse, and (3) lack of congruence between expectation and

reality of roles. The authors felt that self-role congruence in women leads to better mental

health.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:l. To study the basic concepts of work life balance.

2. To understand the concept of family work conflicts.3. To study various factors those could lead to WFC and FWC among married women

employees.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:SAMPLE DESIGN & SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:The sample consisted of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50years. Thirty married working women were selected using simple random sampling

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technique from each setting, i.e., industrial setting, school setting and hospital setting. Thewomen who were married at least for 3 years, living with spouse and engaged in work for atleast I year were included in the study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptiveand inferential statistics. Carl Pearson's Correlation was used to find the relationshipbetween the different variables.

SAMPLING INSTRUMENTS:The WFC and FWC Scale is a 10-item, 7-point Likert scale, which measures WFC and

FWC of working individuals. The participants are asked to indicate the extent to which theyagree with each item. The responses range from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).Higher scores indicate high level of work/family conflict, while lower scores indicate lowlevels of worVfamily conflict. The coefficient alpha of the scale ranged from 0.82 to 0.90.The scale was found to have good content, construct and predictive validity.

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION WITH RESULT:

Table 1: Scores of women on work-family conflict and family-work conflict

WFC & FWC Scores

N:90Mean SD Range

Min MaxWork - family Conflict 22.73 6.55 6 JJ

Family Work Conflict 17.01 7.14 5 30

Interpretation:The mean age of the respondent was 38.70 (SD 8.66) years. Nearly half (44.4%o) of thewomen employees were aged between 4l and 50 years; majority (83.3%) were Hindus fromurban background (72%). With regard to number of children, 4l.l% of the women had onechild showing trend in small family system and 26.70/o had two children. Nearly 70%o of thewomen were working to support their families, 20oh of the respondents were workingbecause they were career oriented, and l0o/o were working to fulfill their personal financialneeds. The mean scores of WFC and FWC among the women [Table 1] show that thewomen scored highest in WFC (Mean 22.73; SD:6.55) and lowest in FWC (Mean 17.01;SD:7.14).

Table 2

Variables wFc F WFC FMean SD Mean SD

Age of the children( years)0to I 23.2 9.2 3.246 11.2 5.28 4.424Zto 5 17.88 4.r9 l5 5.04

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6 to 10 26.9 3.38 19.6 8.15

I I and above 22.64 6.03 18.42 6.9Education of WomenBelow SSL a1L) 5.81 3.546 19.53 7.4 4.266SSL 26 0 22 0

Diploma 25.29 6.s2 13 6.15Graduation 18.44 6.09 16.55 6.67Post Graduation 22.07 6.77 t9.21 6.55

No of ChildrenNo Child ZJ 9.66 0.38 t0.23 4.88 9.07One child 22.89 5.67 19.4 6.s3Two Child z5-3 I s.96 t9.16 7.31

Three Child 21 l8 6.67 13.75 5.1 INature of WorkSchool 20.4 6.38 3.367 18.26 6.36 8.713Hospital 24.69 6.98 l3 6.18Industry 23.2 5.72 19.76 7.18Dual Roles Demand & expectation fromHusbands

Yes 15.5 2.88 4.638 16.5 1.73 4.553No 22.15 7.36 15.48 7.46Sometimes 24.96 3.5 20.2s 5.84Reasons for WorkingSupport Family 23.55 6.42 5.524 17.69 7.71 2.211Financial 29.25 3.77 9 3.46Career Oriented 18.16 5.03 r 5.88 4.66Just wanted to work 23.6 6.94 18.8 5.54

P<0.05, P<0.0 , P<0.001

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Interpretation :

One-way ANOVA - Background variables and work-family conflict and family-workconflictThe result of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) [Table 2] on the ratings of WFC and

FWC across the different categories of the women showed significant (F:3.246; P<0.05)WFC and FWC (F:5.424; P<0.01) among the women whose eldest child was in the agegroup of 6-10 years. Similarly, women belonging to different educational attainment,especially SSLC background, differently rated their WFC (F:3 .456; P<0.05) and FWC(F:4.226;P<0.01). Further, high FWC was found among those who were having one child,whereas less FWC was found among those not having children. However, the rating amongdifferent groups on FWC was statistically significant (F:9.07;P<0.001). There weresignificant variations in the group means of women working in different settings on WFC

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(F:3.376; P<0.05) and FWC (F:8.713;P<0.001). The women working in hospital settingreported higher WFC compared to those working at school or industry setting. FWC wasmore among the women working in industry, when compared to those working in schooland hospital setting. FWC (F:4.638; P<0.05) and WFC (F:3.553; P<0.05) were

significantly high among the women whose husbands demanded dual roles from workingwomen. The women working due to financial needs scored significantly high WFC(F:5.254; P<0.01) in comparison with the other groups.

Table 3

Interco relation among the work-family conflict and family-work conflict with background variables

Background Variables wFc FWCAge -0.036 0.189

Overall Work Experience I -0.004 0.193

Age of eldest Child -0.071 0.211No. of Children -0.072 0.002Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level ( 2 tailed test)

Interpretation:The above results also indicate that age of the children was positively correlated (P<0.05)with FWC of the working women. However, non-significant relationships were foundbetween age of the women, overall work experience, and number of children on WFC and

FWC. In addition, non-significant relationship was also found between the age of the eldestchild and WFC.

Interco relation among the work-family conflict and family-work conflict with backgroundvariables

DISCUSSIONThe present study was aimed at exploring the factors which lead to WFC and FWC amongmarried women employees working in different settings. WFC and FWC were found to be

more among the women having the eldest child between 6 and l0 years. Moreover, the age

of the children was significantly positively correlated with FWC among the workingwomen. The findings of the study support the earlier studies that age of the children isrelated to more WFC and FWC among married women employees.

Workplace characteristics also contribute to higher levels of WFC. In the present study,women working in hospital setting reported more WFC, whereas FWC was found to be

more among those women working in industrial setting. Researchers have found that the

number of hours worked per week, the amount and frequency of overtime, an inflexiblework schedule, unsupportive supervisor, and an inhospitable organizational culture forbalancing work and family increase the likelihood of women employees to experience

conflict between their work and family roles.

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Dual role demands and expectation from working women by husbands was significantlyrelated to high WFC and FWC among the working women in the present study. Accordingto Sharma, the support and involvement of husband positively relates to lower levels of roleconflict experienced by the married working women. Carlson et al. found that experience ofwork demands negatively influenced family responsibilities in more instances than familydemands that influenced work responsibilities. Job-parent conflict was repofted to be themost often experienced conflict among the women.

Survey in West showed that young women are expected to combine a career withmotherhood. In Indian context, a lot of women, especially those from the lower middleclass, are seeking the job market today because they have to augment the family income.They have to provide a better life for their families, pay their children's tuition fees and plan

a better future for them. In the present study, it is seen that the women working due tofinancial needs reported higher WFC when compared to those working for other reasons. Inthat case, woman needs to be careful not to bring home her frustration and unhappiness,

which can affect family relationships.

FUTURE DIRECTIONSIt is critical for work and family research to fully understand the conditions under which themarried women employees experience conflict between their roles. There is a need toconsider working environment, job satisfaction, family support and number of workinghours in the future research. Future studies should also continue to refine the methodology

used in the area of work-family research. In orderto attain in-depth understanding of one's

work and family life, researchers who study work-family roles should include rnultipleperspectives such as job stress, quality of life, mental health, and work demands. Inaddition, it is necessary to explore multiple waves of data collection over a longer period oftime to better understand the changing nature of work family roles overtime. Longitudinalstudies need to be conducted to examine how the stages of life (e.g., marriage, child birth,and child rearing) affect work and family concerns. It is clear from the current study thatmarried women employees indeed experience WFC while attempting to balance their workand family lives. Thus, organizations need to formulate guidelines for the management ofWFCs since they are related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.

REFERENCESl. Srivastava V. New Delhi: National Publishing House; 1978. Employment of educated

women in India; its causes and consequences.2. Ramanna A, Bombawale U. Transitory status images of working women in modern

India.Indian J Soc Work. 1984:45:189-202.3. Campbell DJ, Campbell KM, Kennard D. The effects of family responsibilities on the

work commitment and job performance of non professional women. J Occupa OrganPsych. 1 99 4 ;67 :283-9 6.

4. Maskowska Z. Psychosocial characteristics of work and family as a determinant ofstress and well-being of women: A preliminary study. Int J Occup Med EnvironHealth. 1995 ;8:21 512. [PubMed]

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5. Super DE. A life-span, life_space approach to careerBehar.l 980:16:282-9.

ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591_6

development. J Vocat

6' Kopp RG' Ruzicka FM' women's multiple roles and psychological well-being. psycholRep. I 993;72:1 3 s I 4. tpub{cdl7' Doress-wortes PB' Adding elder care to women's multiples roles: A critical review ofthe caregiver stre-ss and multiple roles literature. sex Roles. 1gg4;31:5g7413.8' Hughes DL' Glinsky E. Gender,

^jo!_ and famil/ conditions and psychological

^ symptoms.psychol Women euart. 1994;1g:251_70.9' Facione NC' Role overload and health: The married on the wages labor force. HealthCare Women Inr. I 992;15:157_67.lpqlX4qdll0' Audelman PK' Multipte roles and trealtn among older adults. Res Aging. 1994;16:142-

ll' Carlson DS' KacmarKM, williams LJ. PaperPresented at lgggAcademic Managemenrx4eeting' california: 1998. The development and vuiidution of a multi-dimensionalmeasure of work_family conflict.12' Greenhaus JH, Beutell NJ. Sources conflict between work and family roles. AcadManage Rev. l9g5; l0:76_gg.13. Fu cK, Shaffer MA. The tug of work and famiry. personner Rev. 200r ;30:502_22.l4' stover DL' The horizontal distribution of female rnunug.r, within organization. workOccup. 1994;l:385402. brrJ vYrrrl'lr vtEatttLd

l5' Burke RJ' organizationa values, work experices and satisfactions among managerialand professional women. J Mangament Dev. 2001;20:34,6_54.t'f"Ti}i,?;,lf$Tte role and women's health: A multi-linear moder.Equar oppor17' Gill S' Davidson MJ' Problems and press,res facing lone mothers in managment andprofessional occupations - A pirot study. won.'"n N4un-ufn.u.2000;r 7:3g3_99.I 8' Rapoport R, Rapoport RN. New york: praeger pubrishTng;

r 9g0. work, famiry and the

19' Hays S' New York: Yale University Press; 1996. The cultural contradictions ofmotherhood.20' Reskin B' Ross cl:-J*t authority, and earnings among managers: The continuing.significance of sex. Work Occu p. DbZ)9:342_65.2l.Reskin B, padavic I. Thousand oaks: pine Gorge press; 1994. women and Men atWork.22'Marks S. Murtipre rores and rore strain: Some notes and human energy, time, andcommitment. Am Sociol Rev. 1977 ;42:921_36.23' Aryee S' Antecedents and outcomes of work family conflict among married professionalwomen: Evidence from Singapore. Hum Relat. ,OOZ;+S:ttl_Sl.24'Grandey AA, cropanzano R. The conservation of resources model applied to workfbmily conflict and strain. J Voc Behar. 1999;54:350_70.25' Boles JS' Babin BJ. on the front lines: Stresr, .onfli.t, and the customer serviceprovider.J Bus Res. 1996:37 :41_50.26' Good LK' Grovalynn FS, James wG. Antecedents of turnover intentions among retailmanagement personnel. J Retailing . lggg;64:295114.

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"A study on customer's awareness on Green Banking initiatives inselected pubtic and private sector banks with special reference to

pune City,,

Miss' Rohini Gujar (Student), Roshna Jaid (Assistant professor)Rajgad Institute of Management Research & Deveropment, pune 43Email id: rohinigujar.rj2 r @gmair.com phone No. - 7743g r 5 r 7g, 9g60570696

Abstract:According to clark Schultz (2012) Green banking means promoting environmental-friendlypractices and reducing your carbon footprint fro- your banking activities. According toPravakar Sahoo and Bihoo Prasad Nayak (2008) there has not been much initiative in thisregard by the banks and other financial institutions in India though they play an active role inIndia's emerging economy, so it is suggested to initiate to promote green banking in India. Theconcept of green banking helps to create cleaner and greener future as Green euntinghas directimpact on the environment. This paper has been made to study level of consumer satisfaction andawareness regarding "Green banking services "initiative taken by various public and private

sector banks in India, Pune The study aims to identify the opinion and awareness of bankemployees and customers as regards to green banking concept in public and private sector banks.It is necessary to identifo various initiatives taken by bank on the concept of green banking inorder influence customer and make them user friendly. Researcher will study the impact ofgender on green initiatives taken by public and private sector banks. whether they face anytechnical procedural problems as well as administrative problems. The authors have used SpSStechnique as a statistical method.

Key words: Green Banking Environment, customer satisfaction

Introduction:The financial institutions influence the economic growth and development of the country both interms of Quality and Quantity, there by adopting various strategies for economic growth. Asenvironmental issues gain greater attention, pressure is being placed on all industries, includingfinancial institutions to implement Green Initiatives. Banking sector plays a crucial and decisiverole in promoting environmentally sustainable and ,o.iJly responsible investments as itincreases the value and lowers loss ratio as higher quality loan portfolio results in highereaminss.

Thus, encouraging environmentaily responsible investments and prudent

Wunking r".,or. The Green initiatives taken by

lending should be oneBanks or a concept of

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Green banking means using all of the banks resources with responsibility and care, avoidingwaste and giving priority to choices that take sustainability into account. It also means promotingenvironmental-friendly practices and reducing your carbon footprint from your bankingactivities.

The reasons for going green are manifold, and the key among them are: increasing energyconsumption and energy prices, growing consumer interest in environmentally-friendly goodsand services, higher expectations by the public on Bank's environmental responsibilities andemerging stricter regulatory and compliance requirements. This comes in many forms. Usingonline banking instead of branch banking. Paying bills online instead of mailingthem. Openingup CDs and money market accounts at online banks, instead of large multi-branch banks. Orfinding the local bank in your area that is taking the biggest steps to support local greeninitiatives. It is an umbrella term referring to practices and guidelines that make bankssustainable in economic, environment, and social dimensions. It aims to make banking processesand the use of IT and physical infrastructure as efficient and effective as possible, with zero orminimal impact on the environment. Green banking refers to how environmentally friendly yourbank is, and how committed to green and ethical policies they are.

Objectives:l. To study & understand the Green Practices implemented by selected private & public banks

in'Pune.

2. To analyze the awareness about the implemented green practices of Banks amongstcustomers.

3. To suggest the measures for creating awareness & technological changes amongst customerregards with green practices.

Current Scenario:U SBI will introduce "green-channel banking" at more of its branches to promote paperless

work and to facilitate faster transactions for customers, SBI sources said Asia Pulse [Rhodes]ll May20ll.

n The Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT), which is an

arm of RBI, is all set to introduce guidelines for green funds under which banks are giveninstruction to set up green funds and have a chief green officer to extend concessional loansto players undertaking environment-friendly projects. The banks on their parts are currentlyexamining the guidelines and might come up with specific policies very shortly, ChiefExecutive.

! To help financial institutions eliminate the use of couriers to carry tapes to an offsitelocation, ITI offers secure online backup and recovery solutions. Our cost-effective dataencryption solution encrypts and compresses data so files can be safely transmitted to an

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offsite server or electronic vault, again eliminating the need for couriers.Data Analysis and Interpretation1. Respondent having sound educational background with some degree of awareness w.r.t green

products were targeted and approached for the study. Among 100 respondents 42 were Maleand 58 were Female. Respondents were mainly from public sector banks like SBI, PNB andBOI and from Private Banks ICICI, HDFC and AXIS bank. From Public banks we got 59respondents whereas from private banks we got 4l respondents. All the bank considered forthe study were top rated banks so these banks are chosen from public and private bankingsector as per latest facts and figure published by .N.S.E

2. Out of the respondents approached in SBI ,77 o were using green banking products but were

not aware of the terminology ,, Green banking" and remaining23 Yo were quite aware of thegreen banking services provided by the Bank. Likewise from PNB 77 %o were not aware ofthe terminology Green Banking and therefore were explained but they were using greenbanking products like ATM , online banking etc but remaining 23 c'/o werc aware of the green

banking concept. It was founded that92 % of BOI respondents were not aware and only 8 %were aware. Among Private sector banks from ICIC bank 88 %o were not aware of the termbut remainin g 12 % were aware of the green banking concept. From HDFC bank 90 Yo werenot aware of the term but remaining 70 %o were aware of the green banking concept andf astly from Axis 96 were not aware and 4 %o were aware about Green banking activities.

3. From the above data With reference to first definition (Vl3) i.e. "Green banking means usingall of the banks resources with responsibility and care, avoiding waste and giving priority tochoices that take sustainability into account Green banking means using all of the banksresources with responsibility and care, avoiding waste and giving priority to choices that takesustainability into account.33 % of the respondents were in favour of this definition while 67Yo are not in favour. 49 % people were in favour (Vl4),,Green banking refers to howenvironmentally friendly your bank is, and how committed to green and ethical policies theyare and remaining 5l Yo were not in favour of this definition and only l8 o% were in favour ofthird definition (Vl5)i.e. "Sustainable development or Green Banking denotes developmentthat does not reduce the possibilities and choices for the future generations, at the same timeensuring continuity of economic progress for the present generation" remaining 82 Yo doesn'tfeelthe same.

Although all the definitions are similar in meaning, but have explained green banking concept ina different way but majority people i.e" 49 %o agrees with (V14) Green banking refers to howenvironmentally friendly your bank is, and how committed to green and ethical policies they are.And majority people i-e.82 oZ dis agree with (Vl5) Sustainable development or Green Banking

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denotes development that does not reduce the possibilities and choices for the future generations,at the same time ensuring continuity of economic progress for the present generation.

Green banking Initiatives by Banks and its awareness among their customers.

Table:2From the above data we can see that green initiatives like Communication through Press, Bankenvironmental policy, Concession on energy savings, Solar ATMs, Green CDs are few greenbanking initiatives that are still not introduced by the respective banks according to therespondents. As per the data 60 o/o of the respondents agree these initiatives are still notinitiated. However, these concepts are new in India therefore it can be the probable reason forpoor awareness level among consumers. The case could be that even though few green bankingstrategies are initiated by the bank ,customers are not aware. As for instance, SBI was the first

Green Initiatives AwareNot

Aware1. Green Checkins 88% t2%2. Green Loans 56% 44%3. Green Mortgages 45% 55%4. Green CDs 36% 64%5. Controlled use of energy 67% 33%6. Facility of e-statement registration by which banks will donate a book

to needy 64% 36%

7. Reduced wastage of papers and Energy through Net bankingaproach 67% 33%

8. Use of Solar powered ATMs 34% 66%9. Energy - efficient branches and loans 68% 32%10. Providing recyclable debit cards and credit cards 47% 53%11. High- efficiency lighting s5% 45%12. Using recycle paper or recycle waste 47% 53%13. Bonds and mutual funds meant for environmental investments 44Yo 56%14. Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) related services working on

climate chanse 45% 55%

15.50%owaenergy I

ver in processing fee of cars that use alternate mode ofke electricity and CNG. 25% 75%

16. Conducting Workshops and Seminars for Green bankins 50% s0%17. Bank Environmental Policy 36% 64%18. Online Bill Payment 8t% t9%19. Cash Deposit System 84% t6%20. E - Investment Services 76% 24%21. Communicate throueh the Press. 31% 69%

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in India to start introducing Solar power ATMs but 60 %o of the respondents donLt know thisand ,,Pockets by! ICICI is first in India to carry out a slew of banking services on the socialmedia site, Face book. So bank should design a strong strategies to promote these green

banking initiatives as done in other countries. While in some green initiatives more than 60 %o

of the respondents were in favor that green products are provided in their banks like GreenChecking, Controlled use of energy, Facility of e-statement registration by which banks willdonate a book to needy, Online Bill Payment , Cash Deposit System, E - Investment Services,Net Banking, Energy efficient branches.

4. Hypothesis StatementsHol There is no significant difference in the awareness for E - Statement initiatives w.r.t gender.Ho2. There is no significant difference in the awareness level for Net banking initiatives w.r.tmale and female customers.Ho3. There is no significant difference in the green initiative for Green loans w.r.t gender.

Hypothesis Initiatives Significant Valur ResultHI E - Statemen .502 Rx

H2 Green Loans .183 R*H3 Net Banking t32 R*

Above table shows the result for the entire three hypothesis which were rejected at 95% LOS.The data was analyzed in SPSS wherein, cross tabsns ,Chi square test was applied forhypothesis testing. Additionally in | 2"d and 3'd hypothesis, study reveals the details of the Chisquare value of E - Statement Green Loans and Net Banking which shows that Genders have noimpact for all the parameters of hypothesis with respect to green banking which means that bothof them have same awareness level with respect to Green Banking.

5. obstacles experienced by respondents in availing green banking services

Obstacles Difficulty in operate No difficulfy in operate

Data Security and Privacy 2r% 79%

Lack ofeducation 26% 74

Technical Issues 38% 6204

Traditional approach r3% 87%

Lack of infrastructure l4% 86%

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Table:3According to the above table, majority of the respondents i.e. 38 Yo of the respondents havetechnical issues. 26 %o of the respondents favour towards lack of education while 87 %o of therespondent have no difficulty in adopting latest technology and Infrastructure.Conclusion:With Go Green mantra permitting, the banking sector too has adopted sustainable practices inall spheres of life. Green Banking is a Multi-stakeholders' Endeavour where banks have to workclosely with govemment, NGOs, IFIs/IGOs, Central Bank, consumers and businesscommunities to reach the goal. From the above research we can see that green initiatives likeCommunication through Press, Bank environmental policy, Concession on energy savings,Solar ATMs, Green Cds is not familiar in Green initiatives by the bank as per the respondents.From the above data we can see that green initiatives like Communication through press, Bankenvironmental policy, Concession on energy savings, Solar ATMs, Green Cds is not familiar inGreen initiatives by the bank as per the respondents.There is definitely a huge opportunity in clean, renewable energy technologies, emissionsreduction and reduced-carbon transportation which can be slowly and steadily be achieved if weget cooperation from all sectors of the economy and bank being an integralpart of our economymust lead from the front.

Reference:

' Dr. Kumar Dash Saroj, Dr. Parwez Asif and Mr. Parwez Firoz (2013) "service eualityMeasurement and its evaluation of leading Private Banks of India in Delhi and NCRRegion". An analytical study Intemational Journal of Contemporary Business Studies, Vol:4, No: 1. January, 2013 ISSN 2156-7506,

' DR' Bahl Sarita, (2012) "The role of green banking in sustainable growth" , internationaljournal of marketing, financial services & management research, Vol.l No. 2. Februarv2012, ISSN 2277 3622, online Available at indianresearchjoumals.com

' Farooqi Rashid Md., Kumari Sharda and Shoeb Dr. Mohd. (2013 )"Recent Trend of e-CRMin Commercial Banks of India, IJAIEM, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2013, ISSN 23lg - 4g47

o Nigamananda Biswas (2011) "sustainable Green Banking Approach: The need of the Hour,,,Volume - I, No-1, January-June.

o www.nytims/ODlXjp. 6.www.hindustanbusinessline.com/industry-and

economy/banking/articl esl2 | 62243 sce?homepage:true. Bloomberg new Energy Finance Report 2013

*******

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A Study of Demand Forecasting & Capacity PlanningRohan P. Dahivale (Assistant Professor), Rajgad Institute of Management Research &

Development, 9921 613494, rohandahivale@red iffmai l.com

Vaibhav Jadhav (Production Trainee), UGC Supply Chain Solution, Wing, 9503733029

Dr. vikas Inamdar, (Director), IMCC, Mayur colony, Pune, [emailprotected]

Abstract

Forecasts are becoming the lifetime of business in a world, where the tidal waves of changeare sweeping the most established of structures, inherited by human society. Demandforecasting is predicting future demand for the product. In other words it refers to theprediction of probable demand for a product or a service on the basis of the past events andprevailing trends in the present.

Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by anorganization to meet changing demands for its products. Effective capacity is the maximumamount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period due toconstraints such as quality problems, delays, material handling, etc.

The research is carried out to get an insight into the understanding of demand forecastingand capacity planning. This further helps to get knowledge about demand prediction andplanning of the available capacity in optimum manner.

Keywords: [Production Planning & Control, Demandforecasting, copacity PIanningJ

1l IntroductionDemand forecasting is the art and science of forecasting customer demand to drive holisticexecution of such demand by corporate supply chain and business management. Demandforecasting involves techniques including both informal methods, such as educated guesses,

and quantitative methods, such as the use of historical sales data and statistical techniquesor current data from test markets. Demand forecasting may be used in production planning,inventory management, and at times in assessing future capacity requirements, or in makingdecisions on whether to enter a new marketDemand forecasting is predicting future demandfor the product. In other words it refers to the prediction of probable demand for a productor a service on the basis of the past events and prevailing trends in the present.

Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an

organization to meet changing demands for its products.In the context of capacity planning,design capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable ofcompleting in a given period. Effective capacity is the maximum amount of work that an

organization is capable of completing in a given period due to constraints such as qualityproblems, delays, material handling, etc.

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Capacity is calculated as (number of machines or workers; x (number of shifts) x

(utilization) x (efficiency).Production planning is the planning of production and manufacturing modules in a

company or industry. It utilizes the resource allocation of activities ofemployees, materials and production capacit)r, in order to serve different customers.Different types of production methods, such as single item manufacturing, batchproduction, mass production, continuous production etc. have their own type of productionplanning. Production planning can be combined with production control into productionplanning and control, or it can be combined and or integrated into enterprise resourceplannins.

2l Objectives Of The Study :

l. To study the demand forecasting and capacity planning.

2. To track the error of the demand forecasting with the help of tracking signal.3. To analyze the inter-relation between demand and capacity.4. To study the plan, schedule & control activities of production processes through

aggregate planning.

3l Research Problem/Statement of Problem :

In this production company where this case is taken, UGCL is batch manufacturing process

industry mainly having various types of products and their demands are fluctuating everyweek as customer requirement. So it becomes very much difficult to predict the demand forthe particular product and ultimately it becomes very much cumbersome to do the capacityplanning. It also makes an impact on the cost and delivery.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGNSN Parameter Description

I Type ofresearch Descriptive Research

2 Nature of Research Qualitative & Quantitative

3 Survey period 1 November 2015 to 31 December 2015

4 Sources of data collection Primary and Secondary sources

3 Primary sources Interview, Observations

6 Secondary sources Book, Journal, Articles, Data Sheets

7 Data interpretation Graphs

8 Statistical software Packase Ms Excel

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4I DATA ANALYSIS & DATA INTERPRETATION4.1 Demand Forecastingr Purpose of forecast: To use the resources in optimum manner.o Time horizon: l2 weeks.

o Forecasting technique: Linear trend equationFt:a*btWhere, t: specified number of time periods from t:0Ft: Forecast for period ta: value of Ft at F0b: slope of line

Week IT I t*t Demand in units Forecastdemand

t t*t v ty

I I 76s0 7650 788 r

2 a 7830 r 5660 806 I

J 6 t4 6240 18720 8241

4 10 30 9700 38800 8422

5 t5 55 r 0350 511 50 8602

6 21 9r 8400 50400 8782

7 28 140 7850 s4950 8963

8 36 204 9430 7 5440 9143

9 45 285 r 0300 92100 9323

0 55 38s lls00 l 1 5000 9504

I 66 s06 9810 I 08570 9684

2 78 6s0 73s0 88200 98641J 0045

^ 0225

5 0405

6 0585

7 0166

8 0946

9 t12620 1307

21 r48722 t667

z) l 848

24 2028

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"Kashvi" '2016

Interpretation:

ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

; --f

(!Eoo

14000,t2000

100008000600040002000

Forecast Demand

JffiWW://WWWWWffi13 74 15 76 77 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Week

Graph No.l Week Vs Demand Forecast

From the above graph, we can conclude that forecasted demand gradually increased overthe certain time period that can be calculated by the given formula as stated above. The timehorizon for the demand forecasting is twelve weeks and the linear equation forecastingtechnique has been used. The main purpose is to use the optimum resources.

4.2 Tracking the Demand Forecasting ErrorFORECAST ERROR (FE)

l) Sum of Forecast Error ISFE;sFE_ IiL, si

2) Mean Absolute neviati,onlMary1--

MAD=: - XlLl lti I3) Mean Absolute pe.centageE.ror IMAFE;L slrl lsilMAPE:: * XiLr ff.roo

4) Mean Squared Error (MSE)

vsej* Zi,_rti,5) Tracking Signat (TS)

SFEJg-

Week Demand inunits

Forecast

demandl'orecastError

SFE SFE AbsoluteDeviation

c*ms.Abs Devt v

-231I 7650 788 I -231 -231 -2312 7830 806 I zJl -462 -462

-t+oJ231 0

3 6240 8241 -2001 -2463 -2001 -17704 9700 8422 1278 r 185 1262 -1278 -3279

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I 0350 8602 1748 563 8517 1748 4706 8400 8782 J62 l8l

-9n*-o4)

2737 382 21307 7850 8963 -l l13 9603 r I 13 4958 9430 9143 287 4503 287 4009 r 0300 9323 977 JJZ

2:284463 977 264l0 r 1500 9504 1996 7282 -1996 019ll 9810 9684 r86 2514 861 r86 8r0t2 7350 9864 -2514 0

-:0

0 -2514 -2328Total 106470 106470 0 36072

"KBshvi" - 2016

i

ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

oo,Jla0

J(E

F

500

300

100

-1 00

-300

-500

I

Week MAD Absofute Error oh MAPE Squared Error MSE Tracking Signalt

-231.00 -3.02 -3.02 5336 I 53361 1.02 0.00 -s.90 -5.97 53361 53361 0.0aJ -590.00 -39.47 -16.13 400400 I 370241 A14 -819.7 5 13.01 -8.85 t633284 436002 1.55 94.00 82.29 9.38 3055504 759902 90.66 355.00 32.s8 t3.25 '145924 490906 7.',77 213.57 t22.33 28.83 t238769 454886 45.08 r 7s.00 47.75 31.20 82369 283322 25.79 140.44 +J.JJ J Z.JJ 954529

39340 I 6

246',789 31.8l0 - r0l .90 63.32 35.62 520s12 -11.5ll -164.55 8.72 33.r8 34596 38542912 -194.00 0.00 30.41 6320196 796659 0.0

Total 364.9s

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Graph No.2 Week Vs Tracking SignalInterpretation:This graph shows tracking of the error for the forecasted demand; it has been useful toverify the accuracy of the forecasted demand for the first twelve weeks where we considerthe actual demand. This error has been calculated by the linear regression method where wecalculate the sum of the forecasted error against the mean absolute deviation. From the

above graph we can interpret that there is a sudden change in the tracking signal in fifth,seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth weeks; so we will have to pay attention for the these fiveweeks.

t-Forecast Error

10000

5000

-5000

-10000

Graph No.2.1 Week Vs ErrorInterpretation:This graph is error against the weeks; it is useful to see the forecasted demands are withinceftain limit or not. From the above graph shown there is fluctuating change in the errorover the twelve weeks has been observed. This forecast error has been calculated to verifythe error of the predicted demand.

4.3 Capacity Planning

A) Available Capacity

WeekDemandin units

Hrs/unit ofproduction

Demand inhrs

No ofWorking

davs

Workinghrs/day

No ofworkers

Capacityavaila ble

hrs

CapacityDemand

Gan in hrsI 7650 0.08 612 6 8 IJ 624 t2

2 7830 0.08 626.4 6 8 J 624.)A

3 6240 0.08 499.2 6 8 0 480 19.2

4 9700 0.08 776 6 8 o 768 8

5 I 0350 0.08 828 6 8 7 816 t2

6 8400 0.08 672 6 8 q 672 0

7 7850 0.08 628 6 8 J 624 4

8 9430 0.08 754.4 6 8 6 768 - 13.6

I

tI

j--^-

oU

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9 l 0300 0.08 824 5 8 20 800 24

10 I 1500 0.08 920 6 8 l9 912 8

ll 9870 0.08 789.6 6 8 t7 816 -26.4

t2 73s0 0.08 588 6 8 t2 576 tz

"Kashvi" - 2016 ISBN No. 978-93-5158-591-6

Graph No.3 Demand Vs Capacity

Interpretation:The above graph is actual demand versus available capacity; it shows the actual demand has

been satisfied with the available capacity but where it's not fulfilled the extra capacity has

to utilized and when there is extra capacity available that has been utilized for certainmaintenance or other work.

Graph No.4 Capacity Demand Gap in hrs

Demand Vs Capacity1000

800

600

400

200

2345678910

* Demand in hrs il Capacity available hrs

7211

Capacity Demand Gap in hrs30

20

10

-10

-20

-30

) " 4_'5_6 7 __\"gf_" -"9_10-

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Interpretation:The above graph shows the gap between the capacity and demand; where the positive sideshows the extra capacity time available after the fulfillment of demand and negative sideshows there is a need of the capacity to fulfill the demand.

A) Required Capacity

Demand Vs Capacity1000

800

600

400

200

r Demand in hrs ffi Capacity available hrs

Graph No.5 Demand Vs Capacity

Interpretation:The above graph is predicted demand versus required capacity; it shows the predicted

demand has been satisfied with the required capacity but where it's not fulfilled the extra

WeekDemandin units

Hrs/unit ofproduction

Demandin hrs

No ofWorking

days

Workinghrs/day

No ofworkers

Capacityavailable

hrs

CapacityDemand

Gap in hrs

L3 7650 0.08 612 6 8 13 624 -12

1.4 7830 0.08 626.4 6 8 1_3 624 2.4

15 6240 0.08 499.2 6 8 10 480 t9.2

1"6 9700 0.08 776 o 8 768 8

17 10350 0.08 828 b 8 L7 816 t218 8400 0.08 672 6 8 1.4 672 0

L9 7850 0.08 628 b 8 13 624 4

20 9430 0.08 754.4 6 8 16 768 -13.6

27 10300 0.08 824 5 8 20 800 24

22 1.1500 0.08 920 6 8 T9 912 6

23 9870 0.08 789.6 6 8 L7 816 -26.4

24 7350 0.08 588 o 8 1.2 576 12

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capacity has to utilized and when there is extra capacity available that has been utilized forcertain maintenance or other work.

Capacity Demand Gap in hrs30

2U

10

-10

-20

,- -30

Graph No.5.1 Capacity Demand Gap in hrsInterpretation:The above graph shows the gap between the capacity and demand; where the positive sideshows the extra capacity time available after the fulfillment of demand and negative sideshows there is a need of the capacity to fulfill the demand.

5l Findings :

l' The proJect data helps to specify & identify the forecasting of demand for the particularproduct over the cer"tain period of time.

2' According to demand forecasting it is useful to determine the demand and forecast errorfor the future period which has been arso tracked by trend rinear equation.3' The available capacity planning has been done for the actual demand which will behelpful to decide the gap between the demand and the capacity.

4' once the demand have forecasted, the required capacity planning has been done for theforecasted demand which will be helpful to decide,rr. gup between the demand and thecapacity.

5' The actual demand has been satisfied with the available capacity but where it,s notfulfilled the extra capacity has to utilized and when there is extra capacity available thathas been utilized for certain maintenance or other work.

6' From the above data analysis; the gap between the capacity and demand; where thepositive side shows the extra capacity time available after the fulfillment of demand andnegative side shows there is a need of the capacity to fulfill the demand.

7 ' Demand forecasting and capacity planning are interrelated and interdependent to eachother.

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6] Recommendations :

l. The management has to pay attention towards the demand and demand forecasting.2. Organization has to use the resources carefully as to do the capacity planning according

to the demand and also have to find out the bottlenecks from the process flow diagram.3. If more time required fulfilling the demand then organizarion will have to increase the

capacity.4. The various processes have critically verified & its completion time will be minimized.5. Work break down structure will help to improve the quality of work.

7] References :

l. Wescott, Bob (2013). The Everyt Computer Pe4formance Book. CreateSpace.2, Hill, Jq,ce (2006). Capacity,Requirements Planning.3. Krajewski, Lee J.; Ritzman, Larry P. (2005). Operations Management: Processes and

Value Chains. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.4. Lazowska, Edward D. (1984). Quantitative System Performance. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-

I 3-746975-6.5. Fargher, Hugh E., and Richard A. Smith. "Method and system for production

planning." U.S. Patent No. 5,586,021.17 Dec. 1996.6. Telsang, Martand. Industrial engineering and production management. S. Chand, 2006.7. Hung, Yi-Feng, and Robert C. Leachman. "A production planning methodology for

semiconductor manufacturing based on iterative simulation and linear programmingcalculations." Semiconductor Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on 9.2 (1996):257-269.

8. Bouchero Thomas O. I'The choice of cost parameters in machining cost models." TheEngineering Economist 32.3 (1987): 217 -230.

9. Beftrand, J. W. M., and W. G. M. M. Rutten. "Evaluation of three production planningprocedures for the use of recipe flexibility." European journal of operational researchI 1s.l (1999): 179-194.

10. Aueust-Wilhelm Scheer (1984) Scheer, A-W. "Production control and informationsystems." Methods and Tools for Computer Integrated Manufacturing. Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 1984. 138-1 78.

I t Solberg, James J. "Capacity planning with a stochastic workflow model." AIIETransactions 13.2 (1 98 l): I 16-122.

12. Kapfan. Robert S. "The evolution of management accounting," The AccountingReview, Vol 14, No 3. July 1986.

13. Herrmann, Jeffrey W. "A history of production scheduling." Handbook of ProductionScheduling. Springer US, 2006. l-22.

14. John Robertson Dunlap, Arthur Van Vlissingen, John Michael Carmody. eds. IndustrialManagement, Yol. 65-66, p. 182

i<{<*****

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'olmplementation of RFID based patient monitoring system usingcloud computing."

Rohan Dah ivale, Assi stant Professor, roh andah i val e@red i ffm ai l.comShantanu Panhale, Tata Communication Limited, [emailprotected]

ABSTRACTIn this paper, I have described the basic concept which is based on cloud computing formanipulating the human activities. This system can monitor Patient's movement, locationby using RI'ID Based sensors. The sensor data is then widely spread to the Clouds. Fromthat, Life care services such as emergency service, care givers can monitor and has

immediate response in case of emergent situations like heart attackWith this system patient information and data can be accessed globally and resources can be

shared by a group ofhospitals rather than each hospital having a separate IT infrastructure.It can provide a flexible platform for public-health departments to upload real-time healthdata in a timely manner.

Keywords: [cloud computing, RFID, patient monitoring system/

Introduction : Health monitoring system using cloud uses Eye-OS an open source webdesktop tool that acts as the cloud where all sensor data are stored rather than storing it inthe local machine. The process of uploading the sensor data to the cloud is done throughsoftware as a service (SaaS) a service provided by cloud to reduce the complexity of storingdata in the local machine. All human activity data captured from sensors are transmitted tothe Cloud Gateway. The gateway classifies data into health data stores in a database. Thefiltering module filters redundant and noise data to reduce communication overhead beforesending to the Cloud. The filtered data are then updated to the cloud database. The data in

the cloud are then accessed by doctors, nurses, care- takers and also by other hospitals, bythis way patients can have better care at low cost.

:w##ffi7.i

.;;i;Hffi ffiwii|:\i==-

1

ffii:i;$if,'-.;-ii?i

li#,fx**"*-'-1$

Figurel : System Architecture

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In the existing system no voice enhanced services were and also used to know the healthcondition of the patients, so the doctors were not able to provide immediate aid to thepatients. As computers became more prevalent, scientists and technologists explored waysto make large-scale computing power available to more users through time sharing,

experimenting with algorithms to provide the optimal use of the infrastructure, platform and

applications with prioritized access to the CPU and efficiency for the end users. [1]

Technical Specification :

Working of Cloud computinga'A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection ofinterconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as

one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established

through negotiation between the service provider and customers and can be ubiquitouslyaccessed from any connected devices over the internet"Cloud computing has computational and sociological implications. In computational termscloud computing is described as a subset of grid computing concemed with the use ofspecial shared computing resources. For this reason it is described as a hybrid modelexploiting computer networks resources, chiefly Internet, enhancing the features of the

client/server scheme. From a sociological standpoint on the other hand, by delocalizinghardware and software resources cloud computing changes the way the user works as he/she

has to interact with the "clouds" on- line, instead of in the traditional stand-alone mode.

Working of The Rfid :

Figure2: RI'ID Block diagramAudio frequency identification (RFID) technology is making a major impact on the healthcare industry. By attaching radio frequency tags to people and objects, RFID technologycan provide identification, tracking, location, secUrity and other capabilities. These

capabilities directly affect the major issues currently experienced by health care

organizations while also helping to drive down costs. It is able to correctly identif, a patient

and know where that patient is at all times results in improved safety and bed placement.

The simplest RFID system has three major components:

. An RFID Tag- Transponder

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. An RFID Reader-Transceiver.

. A predefined protocol for the information transferredAn antenna is connected to the RFID reader to communicate with the transponders. Itsends out the electromagnetic field in a short range. The RFID tag is activated when itpasses through a radio frequency field and sends out the programmed response. The RFIDtag has a small computer chip that is programmed with the information that uniquelyidentifies the tag. The RFID tag can be passive or active. A passive RFID tag does notcontain its own power source; rather, it absorbs energy propagated from a RFID reader's

antenna to supply all the power it needs to wake up its chip and communicate with the RFIDreader. Unlike passive RFID tag, an active RFID tag has built with a battery inside it toenergize the tag. Because active RFID tag uses an intemal battery, its signal strength is a lothigher than passive tag and therefore can be read from a further distance.

VPC (Virtual Private Cloud):A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is a private cloud existing within a shared or public cloud.A virtual private cloud is similar in concept to a virtual private network (VPN). A VPN can

be used to send data over a public network such as the Internet through a private tunnel thatcannot be enter" by data that is not properly encrypted.

Implementation Constraints:In this section we are going to discuss the implementation constraints of the system. Mainlythere are three stages while designing the system.

1. Initial stage: In this case if there is no input to the sensors then obviously the output willbe null. In this stage we are going to store the patient details using there Unique RFID tag.

We are providing each individual tag to each individual patient. So that it will be easy toaccess their details. We are assigning Doctors to each patient this information is also

stored in database that which doctor is assigned to which patient.

We are using cloud to store the database so that data can be access globally and it will notremain limited to the local area only.

If sensors doesn't get any input i.e. input is null then obviously there is no data to process so

output will also be null.

2. Intermediate stage: In this stage we are going to discuss a stage if there is some inputfor sensors. Let us assume that sensors received input X and then it gives output X'.This stage indicates your card is read by reader. There can be fwo possibilities either card isvalid or it is invalid. In case of valid input it will give valid output. While in case of invalidinput it will be the failure output.

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3. Final condition:I: Input State:

This is the case where the reader has already read some data. when application initiates no

input is taken there is only one button is present to select the port for RFID.This data is then sent to the cloud via internet connection.

F: tr'inal State:

When the process completes then there is no input for reading and it exits. When it exitsthere is no tag for sensing and finally the application exits.

Failure State

This case will occur if there is some invalid input given to the system. When the card

doesn't get read properly then this state may happen. So in this case the output will be null.

Algorithmic Implementation :

Algorithm for login window:Stepl: Start

Step2: Create class as LOGIN.Step3: Insert text field and two buttons on login window.Step4: ifcredential is correct go to step 5 else go to step 6.

Step5: open port selection window.Step6: print message "enter correct credential".StepT: Stop.

Algorithm for port selection window:Stepl : create class as port selection.

Step2: Insert two combo box one is for selecting port and second is for selection camera.

Step3: lf port, camera are not selected or wrong port, camera are selected then go to step

4,else step 5

Step 4: print message "please choose correct pott".Step 5: open main GUI window.Step 6: stop.

Algorithm for patient registration windowStep l: create class as patient registration

Step 2: Inseft three button for insert,update, delete and no. of text field as per our need forstoring patient data in the database (cloud).

Step 3: done different types of validation on tell no. email address text field.Step 4: if patient id is already present then display message "patient data is alreadypresent".

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Step 6: if any text field is empty then display message" not allowed to insert data,,else gotostep 7

Step 7: display message" patient data inserted successfuily',.

Step 8: stopAlgorithm for Doctor Registration windowStep 1: create class as Doctor registration .

Step 2: Insert three button for insert,update, delete and no. of text field as per our need forstoring patient data in the database (cloud).Step 3: done different types of validation on tell no. email address text field.Step 4: if patient id is already present then display message ,,Doctor data is alreadypresent".

Step 6: if any text field is empty then display message" not allowed to insert data,, else gotostep 7

Step 7: display message" Doctor data inserted successfullv,,.Step 8: stop

Algorithm patient monitoring window:Step 1:ceate class as patient monitoringStep 2:take one field for camera live streaming which shows patient live activity, two fieldfor patient activity.Step 3: allocate time clock between two activity. if patient performed one activity then hehave to performed second activity within that time slap only,eg after taking a breakfastpatient have to take medicine within l5 min only.Step 4: if the allocate activety not performed by the patient within time stamp only(patientactivity not sensed by RFID sensor ) then immediately message will goes to doctor mobileno .then goto step 6 else goto step 7.Step 5: Doctor will turn on camera. and see patient movement.Step 6: Doctor will assume that patient is performing his activity regularly and clouddatabse will update regularly. e J

Step 7:stop.

SCENARIO DESIGNour general system deployment is shown in Figure. The patient's house includes a kitchen,a bed-room, and a living room. RFID based sensors and cameras are deployed in thepatient's house to collect sensory data and video. We deploy a cloud gateway in the livingroom to collect data from all sensors and cameras. It connects to the Cloud via Intemet highspeed router' Doctors, nurses, and patient's relatives (e.g. his daughter) can access easily viaWeb Browser.

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rel{ seesors €;-,e,0

Figure 3: Overall Scenario

The above figure, i.e. figure 3 shows how we collect data from RFID based sensors andcameras and deploy to the Cloud.A home network is deployed with RFID based sensors and cameras to detect user's activityas illustrated in Figure . We customized our test-bed room as a patient's home environmentwith a living room, a kitchen, and a bedroom.We use a Active RFID tag attached on the patient's right hand to detect his activity such as

taking medicine, reading book, eating, brushing. In each room, we deploy a RFID Reader todetect if the patient is in the room. A web camera is attached on the wall of the living roomand the kitchen to detect his movement such as watching TV, doing exercise. The homegateway is deployed at the patient's home to collect and transmit raw data from RFID based

and cameras to the Cloud.

Figure 4: Overall system deployments at test-bed room.

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A sample scenario is implemented in order to show how our System supports a patient. Itworks as lollows:At 7 o'clock in the morning, the patient enters the kitchen and has breakfast. When heenters, the RFID tag sends a sensed signal to the System. System detects he is in thekitchen. While he is waiting for breakfast, he sits on the chair and looks at the TV. Systemdetects his posture by collectingdata from the camera and inferring the activity. So it sendsa command to turn on the TV.After breakfast, the patient reads a book in the bedroom. Detecting that the patient isreading, system tums off the TV so that he can focus on the book. Later, system recognizesthat he did not take medicine for today by checking the activity database which it hasrecorded. So it sends a sound reminder "Take medicine please!" to him. When the patientperforms those two actions, it updates to the database so that it will not reminder him lateron.

Practical Analysis:We have checked different RFIDs and their specification and plotted the result into the tableas follows

We have selected GP-20 as per our convenience.We have done the experiment with our collogue and checked all the output of allthepossible inputs as follows:

SN Position Ranse Ansle Result3cm l0 cm 90 Successful

2 7cm l0 cm 150 Successful3 8cm l0 cm 180 Unsuccessful4 I 5cm l0 cm 90 Unsuccessful5 l0 cm 10 cm t30 Successful

Table l: RFID Specification

SN Name Cost No of Ports Read DistanceI ALR-8800 2OOO EUR A.+ l0m2 ALR-8800 devc 22OO EUR 4 l7maJ ALR-9650-devc 2495 EUR 4 25m4 GP-20 3000 RS I l0 cm

Table l: RFID Specification

References :

l http:1/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing#Issues2. http://en.wikipedia.orglw/index.php?title:Cloud_computing & old id:293407339 (last

visited May 30, 2009).

3. Produced by the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) in partnership

with SANGONeT, Written by Alex Comninos4. Microsoft Health Vault http://healthvault.com

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5. http ://www .apc.or gl enlsystem/fi les/ I .C I oudComputing.Pd f6. F. Wang and K. J. Turner. "An Ontology-Based Actuator Discovery and Invocation

Framework in Home Care Systems," 7th International Conference on Smart Homes and

Health Telematics, pp.66-73, LNCS 5597, Springer, Berlin, June 20097. J.Boger, J.Hoey, P.Poupart, C. Boutilier, G. Fernie, A. Mihailidis, "A planning system

based on markov decision processes to guide people with dementia through activities ofdaily living." IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicin e 10(2) ,

323-333,2006.8. L. X. Hung, P. T. H. Truc, L. T. Vinh, A. M. Khattak, and et al."Secured WSN-

integrated Cloud Computing for u-Life Care",7th IEEE Consumer Communications and

Networking Conference.

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"Location Based Services Using Smart City Development"

o Amit Dattatray Pasalkar: Arambh Technology, apamit5l @email.como Rohan Dahivale, Assistant Professor, rohandahivale@red iffmail.com. Dr. E. B. Khedkar, Dean, Management faculty, SPPU, Director, D Y Patil School of

Management, Lohegoan, Vice Chancellor, Ajinkya D Y Patil University

Abstract :

A location-based service (LBS) is a Real Time Geographical Data Manipulate through SmartPhone. Location-based services can be query-based and provide the end user with usefulinformation such as "Where is the nearest ATM?" or they can be push-based and delivercoupons or other marketing information to customers who are in a specific geographical area.Location based services Using Smart City Project .lt is also common that some tasks are

only meaningful to be performed at a specific location, so it would be useful physical, social,institution and economic infrastructure location based service to enhance efficiencies andcompetitiveness of cities. Therefore, in this research we implement a location-based servicesintegrated technology with smart city Project. To distinguish our work from existing ones thatrely solely on the GPS technology, this application can be further extended to be used inmany other scenarios which comprise both indoor and outdoor environments, such as guidingin public transportation systems or tourist attractions

Keywords: [Google Map, GPS, GIS,ICTJ

Introduction :

Cities all around the world work with developers and Government to make city living better,whether it's improving the efficiency and Competitiveness Planning, energy, security,transport economy planning through proper management control & oplimization, whichbecomes more powerful as smartphone penetration continues to increase. Apps and well-implemented technology can help cash-strapped govemments save money and, be moreefficient. We put together a list of the technology that we want to see in every major city.By seamlessly collecting advanced data related to power, security, occupancy, water,temperature and more, our Smart Buildings algorithms are giving managers morecomprehensive insights and control of their buildings - ultimately allowing them to properlyutilize costs& power raise efficiencies, and optimize systems.[1]Location based services (LBS) are services offered through a mobile phone and take intoaccount the device's geographical location. LBS typically provide information orentertainment and utilizingthe abilityto make use of the location of the mobile device LBSare services, which are enhanced with and depend on information about a mobile station'sposition. Location information by itself is not the ultimate service, but if location informationis combined with content, useful services may be developed.[2]

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been attracting increasing interest for supporling anew generation of ubiquitous computing systems with great potential for many applicationssuch as surveillance, environmental monitoring, health care monitoring or home automation.However, the communication paradigms in WSNs differ from the ones associated totraditional wireless networks, triggering the need for new communication Protocols.[3]The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provideslocation and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth wherethere is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system providescritical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. GPS has theability to calculate the position, time, and velocity of any GPS receiver. It does so using aprocess of triangulation, which works on the premise that you can find any position if thedistance from three other locations is also known.[4]A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing,checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth's surface. GIS can show manydifferent kinds of data on one map. This enables people to more easily see, analyze, andunderstand patterns and relationships.

Otrjective :

The objective of the paper is concemed with the concept of how Location Based service canbe implemented effectively, and how can it be prominent in developing Smart city and inother developing countries. It is concemed with how ICT (Information and CommunicationTechnology) will be helpful in the smart city and hence the economic development of thecountry

Location Based Service in Smart city Overview :

The smaft cities evolution starts with strategy formulation and city master planning. The firststep is to undertake a thorough assessment of the city's characteristic and demographicprofile such as Social, Physical and Economical. Though this can be done using conventionalapproaches and mechanisms, using LBS and analyzing location data can enable cityadministrators to perform an accurate assessment that is more specific than generic. Locationis a vital component of a networked society. LBS present a lucrative opportunity for the localadministration to enhance its performance by leveraging location and citizen intelligence.Currently, citizen information and data, thatare an asset for driving improvements in servicesand administrative performance, are largely underutilized. It is imperative for localauthorities to pro-actively start identifying customer requirements and address them in asystematic manner to deliver more effective, targeted and better services to citizens andcommunities. LBS, if implemented in a standalone manner, can be beneficial for operators,businesses and citizens

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As they focus on targeting the right people at the right location and at the right time.LBSfunction by pushing orland pulling services into the mobile device of the user. Push servicesrefer to location services that use position Coordinates of the mobile device to give aler-ts

such as weather information and service messages. On the other hand, pull services are thosewherein the user requests for location-based information through a specific application, suchas navigating to a specific location in the city by usingmap service. Therefore, LBS can beconsidered as an amalgamation of the internet, GIS and mobile devices. Geo-fencing is donethrough a software program which utilizes radio frequencyidentification (RFID) or GPS fordefining geographical boundaries. Once a device enters into the defined geographical area,messages ornotifications can be pushed to the device. [2]16lGeolocationing is providing location based services. Common locationing technologiesinclude GPS, Wi-Fi, Cellular, Bluetooth, Infrared, and Radio Frequency Identification(RFID), GIS. The applicable environment for these technologies varies, and their locationingaccuracy also varies according Application uses.Locationing accuracy can also be improvedby combining two or more location technologies.

The proposed System location-based application

wi,riArcess Paint:

SmanphoneFig.l Schematic diagram ofthe proposed location-based services[7]

6PS Sateilite

fiPS Receiver

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The schematic'diagram of our location-based personal services application is shown in Fig. l.This application employs four hardware/software components in the smarlphone, describedas follows. The smartphone is built-in with both a GPS receiver and a Wi-Fi networkinterface card, which can receive radio signals from GPS satellites and Wi-Fi Aps,respectively. Based on the GPS readings and the information from the Wi-Fi APs, theapplication can perform geo locationing to estimate the current location of the user. Thedatabase is designed to store personal-meaningful Locations and location-based tasks, whichare stored in separate tables. If a location-based task exists in the database, then theapplication will compare the currently sensed location with the location associated with thetask.

The proposed System location-based application

In our proposed

(visited and then

user decided that

Fig.2 flow operation location based services[7]social-assisted operating model, indoor & outdoor locations establishedAP-scanned) by a user can be uploaded to a location database server ifthethe location information is safe to be shared with hisiher social group. As a

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consequence, users of the same social group can download the shared location information totheir smartphones and use them for future locationing. It should be noted that in thisoperating model, those locations to be shared require a unified naming scheme. it is feasibleto design the user interface that forces the creator of a location to pin-point the location on theGoogle Maps. Therefore, the GPS Coordinates of the location can be saved in the locationdatabase, The flow of operation of this operating model is shown in Fig. 2 User EnterKeyword(keyrvord Related location,goods,services)then checked which location it should beindoor Or outdoorif Location is indoor then scan indoor database table then cheeked relatedevent location match then trigger query then execute query or if location is outdoor table thencheeked in outdoor table database then cheeked related event matched trigger query thenprocess query.

Application of Location based service (LBS) in Smart cityLocation Based services useful Business, Government, Transport and Healthcare sector

1) Location Based Services is Business SectorE-commerce , Shipping other sector that helpful location based service to identifyNearby Local business, Promoting business ,searching identify needs fulfillment of needs& demands.

2l Location Based Services In Transport SectorTransport Industry shipping Goods & services to evaluated real time tracking locationenhance transparence & reduce cost & time.Public & private transport using Location based services smart Phone evaluated access

schedule tracking real time location of transport.

3) Government Sector use of Location based servicesPublic transport manager will heat maps to plan & update route to manage & handling tobe proper way disaster &emergency situation utilize manage resources using Locationbased service. Manage Traffic, avoid traffic jams.

4) Healthcare sector use location based servicesIi Improving Responses times for emergency services with increased indoor & outdoortracking this will increase response time ambulanceUse to proper tracking sensing location based service with calculated nearby location.

Conclusion :

In this research, we implemented a Location Base Services & its application usage smart citydevelopment in various fields like Govemment, Transport, Business, Healthcare & manyother application. Cloud computing is the upgrading technology& in the future it is becomingso popular. Location based services characteristics that will shape the future of smart cities.

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Location-based services are widespread today. We use them to planning And managingefficient resource proper way utilize resorces.Compared with the application, our applicationtakes full advantage of the ubiquitous WLAN infrastructure to achieve better accuracy inindoor locationing Furthermore, our application gives users a unified user experiencebecause all the established personal-meaningful locations can be displayed on the GoogleMaps UI, regardless of the location types. Location based services characteristics that willshape the future of smaft cities. Location-based services are widespread today.We use them to planning and managing efficient resource proper way utilize resources.

References :

o 45th Hawaii Intemational Conference on System Sciences "Understanding Smart Cities:An Integrative Framework"

o Location Based Services in the Mobile Communications Industry "by ChristopherVerveridis

' a wireless communication technology for large-scale ubiquitous computing applications"Anis Koubda, Mario Alves, Eduardo Tovar

. " PoSITIONING AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM uslNc GpS" J.parrhasarathy

. " {Jsing Google Ear"th for Intemet GIS" Andrew Henryr " Location based services" FICCI. "A location-based personal task reminder for mobile users "Chi-Yi Lin & Mins-Tze

Huns

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"PERM & CPM: Implementation in Production Process'

Prof. Rohan Dahivale, Assistant Professor, Rajgad Institute of Management Research &Development, Pune

Mr. Sourabh Dharne, Student, RIMRD, sourabhdhamel [emailprotected]

Abstract:CPM is commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, aerospace and

defense, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and

plant maintenance, among others. Any project with interdependent activities can apply thismethod of mathematical analysis. Although the original CPM program and approach is no

f onger used, the term is generally applied to any approach used to analyze a project networklogic diagram.

During project execution, however, a real-life project will never execute exactly as it was

planned due to uncertainty. It can be ambiguity resulting from subjective estimates that are

prone to human errors or it can be variability arising from unexpected events or risks. Themain reason that PERT may provide inaccurate information about the project completiontime is due to this schedule uncertainty. This inaccuracy is large enough to render such

estimates as not helpful.

Keywords: IPERT, CPM, Project Management]

Introduction:The program (or project) evaluation and review technique, commonly abbreviated PERT,is a statistical tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and represent

the tasks involved in completing a given pro-iect. First developed by the United States

Navy in the 1950s, it is commonly used in conjunction with the criticalpath method (CPM).

Implementation:The first step to scheduling the project is to determine the tasks that the project requires and

the order in which they must be completed. The order may be easy to record for some tasks

(e.9. When building a house, the land must be graded before the foundation can be laid) whiledifficult for others (There are two areas that need to be graded, but there are only enough

bulldozers to do one). Additionally, the time estimates usually reflect the normal, non-rushedtime. Many times, the time required to execute the task can be reduced for an additional cost

or a reduction in the quality.In the following example there are seven tasks, labeled I through G. Some tasks can be done

concurrently (A and B) while others cannot be done until their predecessor task is complete(C cannot begin until I is complete). Additionally, each task has three time estimates: the

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